The Four Aspects of Belief in Al-Qadr (Divine Decree)

الكاتب : jameel   المشاهدات : 459   الردود : 0    ‏2006-03-28
      مشاركة رقم : 1    ‏2006-03-28
  1. jameel

    jameel عضو متميّز

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    The Four Aspects of Belief in Al-Qadr (Divine Decree)

    Al-Qadr is an Arabic word meaning Allaah’s predestination of measurements and sustenance of everything and everyone, according to His Knowledge and Wisdom. It comprises the following four aspects:

    Knowledge - The belief that Allaah’s knowledge encompasses everything, every matter, major or minor, and the time frame of everything that happens in this universe. Allaah’s Knowledge encompasses all of His actions and actions taken by His slaves.

    Pre-Recording - The belief that Allaah recorded everything in a Tablet that He kept with Himself, called 'Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooth' (The Preserved Tablet). He says what means: “Do you not know that Allaah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed that is in a Record [i.e., Al-Lawh Al-Mah’footh]. Indeed that, for Allaah, is easy.” [Quran: 22:70] Abdullaah bin 'Amr bin Al-'Aas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam (may Allaah exalt his mention) say: “Allaah recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.” [Muslim]

    The Will of Allaah - The belief that nothing, whether related to Allaah’s actions or actions taken by His slaves, can occur without His permission. Allaah says what means: “And your Lord creates what He wills and chooses...” [Quran: 28:68] And: “…And Allaah does what He wills.” [Quran: 14:27] And “It is He who forms you in the wombs however He wills…” [Quran: 3:6] As for actions taken by His creation, Allaah says what means: “…And if Allaah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.” [Quran: 4:90] And: “…And if Allaah had willed, they would not have done so. So leave them and that which they invent.” [Quran: 6:137]

    Creation - The belief that Allaah created all creation, all what they possess of attributes, and all their actions. Allaah says what means: “Allaah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs.” [Quran: 39:62] And: “…He has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination.” [Quran: 25:2] Also, Ibraaheem, may Allaah exalt his mention, said to his people, as was mentioned in the Quran with what means: “While Allaah created you and that which you do?” [Quran: 37:96]

    Believing in Al-Qadr, as described above, does not mean that people have no power over the actions they choose to take. The Islamic Sharee’ah, (Legislation) as well as reality, confirm man has a will of his own:

    As for the Sharee’ah, Allaah says about one’s own will: “…So he who wills may take to his Lord a [way of] return [by obeying his commandments].” [Quran: 78:39] And: “So come to your place of cultivation however you wish …” [Quran: 2:223] As for one’s own power over his actions, Allaah says what means: “So fear Allaah as much as you are able and listen and obey…” [Quran: 64:16] And: “Allaah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned…” [Quran: 2:286]

    As for reality, every human knows that he has a power and a will of his own. He uses his power and will to indulge in or avoid actions of his choice. People distinguish between what they do by their own power and between what they have no power over, like shivering due to illness or the extreme cold. However, the power and will of mankind is under the control of Allaah’s Will and Power; Allaah says what means: “For whoever wills among you to take a right course. And you do not will except that Allaah wills – Lord of the worlds.” [Quran: 81:28-29]. The universe is Allaah’s property and nothing happens in His Kingdom without His Knowledge and Permission.

    Belief in Al-Qadr, as explained above, does not provide an excuse for mankind to sin or abandon what they are obligated to do. This excuse can be refuted by the following seven arguments:

    Allaah says: “Those who associated with Allaah will say: 'If Allaah had willed, we would not have associated [anything] and neither would our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.' Likewise did those before deny until they tasted Our punishment. Say: 'Do you have any knowledge that you can produce for us?' You follow not except assumption, and you are not but falsifying.” [Quran 6:148] The disbelievers did not have a valid excuse when they said that what they did was according to Al-Qadr. If this excuse was valid, then why will Allaah punish them for their sins?

    Allaah says: “[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allaah after the messengers. And ever is Allaah Exalted in Might and Wise.” [Quran: 4:165] Sending the Messengers also took place according to Al-Qadr. This is why the disbelievers cannot use Al-*Qadr as an excuse for not believing, because Al-Qadr provided them with the means to escape Allaah’s punishment by following His Messengers, may Allaah exalt their mention.

    Ali bin Abu Taalib, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: “The final destination, in Hell or Paradise, is already determined for each one of you.” A man said: “Should we depend on this fact, O Messenger of Allaah?" (Meaning, to abandon doing good deeds) He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: “No! Perform (good) deeds, because everyone will be helped (to go on the path that he chooses and reach his destiny).” Then he read the verse (which means): “As for he who gives [in charity] and fears Allaah.” [Quran: 92:5]”

    Allaah conveyed His commandments to His slaves and did not require them to do what is beyond their capacity; He says: “So fear Allaah as much as you are able…” [Quran: 64:16] And: “Allaah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity…” [Quran: 2:286] If the slave is forced to do whatever deeds he performs, then Allaah would have required from him what is beyond his capacity, and this is a false belief. For this reason, Allaah forgives sins that take place because of ignorance or forgetfulness.

    Al-Qadr is a matter of Allaah’s Knowledge. No one can uncover his own Qadr except after it occurs. One’s intention to perform a deed precedes the action itself. He does not know what Al-Qadr holds for him. Therefore, Al-Qadr is not a valid excuse for sinning and abandoning the commandments of Allaah.

    One always seeks what is convenient for him. No one of sane mind would abandon what brings material benefit to him, saying that Al-Qadr forced him to take this course of action. Therefore, why would one use Al-Qadr as an excuse for abandoning what brings benefit to him in matters of religion and not do the same for matters of life?

    If one of those who abandon the commandments of Allaah and indulge in sinning comes under attack of his honour or possessions, would he accept the excuse of the attacker, if he says that he attacked him because it was his Qadr to attack him, and therefore he is not to be blamed? Indeed no!

    Therefore, why does this person refuse Al-Qadr as an excuse for whoever attacked him, and at the same time use Al-Qadr as his excuse for abandoning Allaah’s rights on him?

    It was reported that a man who was caught stealing was brought to 'Umar bin Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, who ordered that this man’s hand be cut off. The man said: “Wait, O leader of the believers! I only stole because this was in the Qadr of Allaah." 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, replied “And we are amputating your hand because it is in the Qadr of Allaah.”