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الغزال الشمالي

مشرف سابق
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15 سبتمبر 2003
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يالله يا جماعة الخير اشتي منكم مساعدة للبحث حقي وباتكونوا تعملوا خير فيني وانا عليكم الفدا
اشتي معلومات عن ..........
" Energy and energy management"

:)
 

العسيب

مشرف سابق
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Energy management as a critical boardroom issue is not overstating the case. This remains true despite the easing of the situation in California. Energy prices are, by their very nature, highly volatile, and ongoing deregulation may begin to expose companies to that volatility. In addition, energy can, and does, have a significant impact on business's financial well being, far beyond its mere cost. For example, a brief power outage caused a South Carolina-based polyester manufacturing facility to shut down for repairs for an extended period of time. During the shutdown, the company lost more than 80 million pounds of production, or about 8% of the site's annual output. The damage was more than material: company officials estimate that lower sales volumes and property damages from the outage will reduce earnings by $12.5 million, or 25 cents a share

Until that day, it is likely that few in the company considered the deep impact that energy could have on their business. Without a dependable energy flow, business grinds to a halt. Employees can't work. Companies lose critical production time. And profits turn into losses. Energy management, in a new, more strategic definition, would include selecting alternative and redundant energy sources where appropriate, and might have helped avert or at least mitigate such a disaster.

This redefinition of energy management as part of overall business strategy has already taken hold at companies across the country. For example, a metal processing company on the West Coast made more than $150 million by scaling back production and selling the resulting unused electricity on the wholesale market. The company didn't have generating capacity of its own, but rather had a contract with its electric supplier that allowed it to sell unused demand on the wholesale market. Someone at the company redefined energy management when they saw that price spikes in electricity on wholesale markets meant that the company could make more reselling electricity than it could processing metal-its core business

[grade="00008B FF6347 008000 4B0082"]طبعا اختي العزيزه هناك نصوص منقوله..لشركات اميريكيه ..علي اعتبارها الاولي في الطاقه العالميه فا خذتها بعين الاعتبار وتستطعيين التغيير[/grade]
 

العسيب

مشرف سابق
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What are the properties of energy?


Energy can be transferred from one object or system to another through the interaction of forces between the objects


Energy comes in multiple forms: kinetic, potential, thermal (heat), chemical, electromagnetic, and nuclear energy.

In principle, energy can be converted from any one of these forms into any other, and vice versa, limited in practice only by the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Energy is always conserved, that is, it is never created anew or destroyed - this is called the First Law of Thermodynamics.



you r s


[grade="FF4500 4B0082 0000FF 000000 F4A460"] there is never wrong time to Do something right [/grade]
 

arabi_always

عضو نشيط
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[align=left]Pardon me, but you need our help in doing the research instead of you. mmmmmm this is not innocent from you neither legal thing to ask. :mad:
 

T_K

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Well, don't assume brother that she wants us to
do her work for her. She just wants HELP in providing
her with some info
So, take it easy bro

I'll try to provide some info if possible

my regards

TK
 

T_K

قلم فضي
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Energy management
The phrase energy management refers to The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits (minimize costs) and enhance competitive positions

The primary objective of energy management is to maximize profits
or minimize costs. Some desirable subobjectives of energy management
programs include:
1. Improving energy efficiency and reducing energy use, thereby reducing
costs
2. Cultivating good communications on energy matters
3. Developing and maintaining effective monitoring, reporting, and
management strategies for wise energy usage
4. Finding new and better ways to increase returns from energy investments
through research and development
5. Developing interest in and dedication to the energy management
program from all employees
6. Reducing the impacts of curtailments, brownouts, or any interruption
in energy supplies

Considerable cost savings can be realised by applying energy efficiency principles to building design and the multitude of systems needed to sustain its various functions it supports. With regard to building design this could include optimum site orientation, insulation, energy efficient windows, temperature control, lighting and energy saving office equipment. At Antarctica stations substantial energy savings may result from implementing water conservation programs, waste energy recovery techniques, automated building management systems and personnel training on energy conservation.

Energy and Energy Management became household words again in
the new millennium, with frequent TV and newspaper stories on electrical
brownouts, blackouts and price spikes. Natural gas hit the news with
price spikes over $10 per million Btu.

The field of
energy management has always been a dynamic, fast-paced profession
that has been driven by a combination of technological advances and
energy and environmental initiatives from our federal and state governments.
Rapid changes in technology and policy have created the need for
quick response through both formal and organized education and individual
self-education.

years.
This growth in energy management has brought many newcomers
into our profession, seeking the same tools and techniques that have
served us so well for many years. The basic driving function is the availability
of new, energy efficient technologies for providing our standard
energy services - light, heat, air conditioning, motors, and process equipment
for commercial facilities, manufacturing shops and heavy industries. Electronic computers and controls have not only provided new
technology, but the price for the new technologies is most often significantly
less than the cost of the older technologies. Learning how to assess
the applications of these new technologies and how to estimate their
energy savings and energy cost savings are still the critical skills needed.

many businesses and industries are adopting a Total Quality
Management (TQM) strategy for improving their operations. Any TQM
approach should include an energy management component to reduce
energy costs.

Example: With only 5 percent of the world’s population, the United States consumes about 25 percent of its energy and produces about 25 percent
of the world’s gross national product (GNP). However, some
nations such as Japan, West Germany, and Sweden produce the same
or greater GNP per capita with significantly less energy than the
United States.

Problems:
U.S. energy production:
Domestic crude oil production peaked in 1970 at just over 10 million
barrels per day (MBD), and has fallen slowly since then to just over 5.8
MBD in 2000. Domestic gas production peaked in 1973 at just over 24
trillion cubic feet (TCF) per year. Gas production remained fairly
steady between 1988 and 1992 at about 21-22 TCF per year.
Cost of imported oil:
Annual average prices per barrel for imported crude oil rapidly escalated
from $3.00 in the early 1970’s to $12 in 1973-1974 and to $37 in
1981. Since 1981 prices have fallen from this peak, and dropped to
about $12 in 1986. From 1986 to 1996, prices ranged from about $12 to
$22 a barrel, with a short spike in prices during the 1989-90 Gulf War.
Prices dropped to $10 in 1998, and have since risen back to about $26.
Reliance on imported oil:
The United States has been a net importer of oil since 1947. In 1970 the
bill for this importation was only $3 billion; by 1978 it was $42 billion;
by 1979, $60 billion; and by 1981, $80 billion, even though the volume
imported was less than in 1979. This imported oil bill has severely
damaged our trade balance and weakened the dollar in international
markets. In 1985 the bill for oil imports fell to a low of $37 billion. It
climbed to almost $64 billion in 1990. In 1996 it was just over $61
billion, but with lower prices after 1996, it was just over $50 billion in
1998. But, with higher prices in 2000, it was $119 billion.
In addition to these discouraging statistics, there are a host of major
environmental problems, as well as economic and industrial competitiveness
problems, that came to the forefront of public concern in the late
1980’s. Reducing energy use can help minimize these problems by:

Limiting global climate change. Carbon dioxide, the main contributor
to potential global climate change, is produced by the combustion of
fossil fuel, primarily to provide transportation and energy services. In
1992, many countries of the world adopted limitations on carbon
dioxide emissions.

Limiting ozone depletion. In the U.S., about half of the CFC’s—which
have been associated with ozone depletion—are used in providing
energy services through refrigeration and air conditioning, and in
manufacturing insulation. Recent international agreements will substantially
phase out the use of CFC’s in industrialized countries by the
year 1996.

Wind energy has technological “noise” and aesthetic problems that
probably can be overcome, but it too is very expensive. In addition, it
is only feasible in limited geographic regions.

Alcohol production from agricultural products raises perplexing
questions about using food products for energy when large parts of
the world are starving. Newer processes for producing ethanol from
wood waste are just being tested, and may offer some significant
improvements in this limitation.

here's the source
http://www.aeecenter.org/Books/PDFs/SamplePages/GuidetoEnergyMgt4edSamplePages.pdf

I didn't rephrase the texts
After you start, if you need me to proofread
it for you or revise the grammar and structure
of it, let me know

regards

TK