طرق و نصائح لسهولة كتابة مقالة بالغة الانجليزية [align=left]This newsletter includes the following: Types of essay test questions Working within time limits Parts of the Essay ~ Introduction ~ Body ~ Conclusion Types of essay test questions: In general, there are three types of essay test questions on the TOEFL®: Type 1 - Agree or disagree with a statement This type of question will ask you to read a statement and decide whether you agree or disagree with it. EXAMPLE: Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Subjects such as art, music, and drama should be a part of every child’s education. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Type 2- Defend an opinion In this type of essay question you will be presented with two points of view of a particular topic and be asked to choose one side to support. EXAMPLE: Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. Type 3- Explain the importance of a development, invention, or phenomenon. In this type of essay question you have to explain the reasons for or causes of something. You may also have to describe its qualities. EXAMPLE: What is the most important product or resource in your country? Why is it important? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Time Limit: You have 30 minutes to write the essay, and this is a major problem for many test-takers; they simply run out of time before the essay is completed and/or proofread. Use those 30 minutes wisely! A good plan is to use your time like this: Prewriting: 3-5 minutes. This includes reading the question and knowing what you are to do, organizing your ideas, and writing a simple outline. Writing the essay: 20 minutes. In each essay, there should be an introduction (4-6 sentences) with a thesis statement, a body (two to four paragraphs), and a conclusion (4-5 sentences). Editing: 5 minutes. Use the final 5 minutes to check your spelling, punctuation, grammar, and word choice. Parts of the Essay Introduction: The introduction should start on a general level with brief lead-in statements and gradually focus in on the specific topic of the essay. Think of it as an inverted triangle, with general statements at the beginning and more specific statements at the end. In the introduction, the reader should find the main idea of the essay expressed in the thesis statement. The reader should be able to tell what specific points about the main idea will be discussed and in what order they will be developed. The lead-in statements could (1) make a striking assertion, (2) use a split anecdote (a story that is begun in the introduction and is finished in the conclusion), (3) use an interesting detail, statistic, or quotation, or (4) ask a provocative question. The introduction should make the reader want to continue reading. Remember: i) Start with a general overview of topic and lead-in statements ii) Finish with a thesis statement (which includes points of argument) Body: The body is the 'heart' of your essay. It will support the views you stated in your thesis statement. A good TOEFL® essay will have two or three (sometimes even four) well-written paragraphs in the body. Each body paragraph should provide clear examples to support your thesis statement. Be sure to use transition words and phrases such as on the one hand/other hand, however, although, in contrast, first, in addition, finally, and so on. Each body paragraph should begin with a topic sentence. This topic sentence should be a major point of argument that supports the thesis statement. Primary support sentences are general statements that support the topic sentence. The secondary support sentences, that support the primary support sentences, provide specific details, quotes, statistics, or real-life examples. Each paragraph should end with a concluding sentence that briefly summarizes the ideas presented in the paragraph. Here is an outline: Body Paragraph 1 (develops first point of argument) Topic sentence Primary Support Secondary Support Primary Support Secondary Support Primary Support Secondary Support Body Paragraph 2 (develops second point of argument) Topic sentence Primary Support Secondary Support Primary Support Secondary Support Primary Support Secondary Support Body Paragraph 3 (develops third point of argument) Topic sentence Primary Support Secondary Support Primary Support Secondary Support Primary Support Secondary Support Conclusion: The structure of the concluding paragraph can be thought of as a regular triangle with specific statements at the beginning and more general statements at the end. Thus, the beginning should include a summary statement that recaps the thesis, a sentence that restates the major points of argument, and a wrap-up statement. The conclusion could also contain the end of a split anecdote that would finish the story begun in the introduction. The wrap-up statement could contain insights of the essay writer, encourage the reader to take action, emphasize the importance of one of the points of argument, or create a solid sense of finality. Remember: i) Start with specific statements (summary/paraphrase of thesis statement) ii) Conclude with more general wrap-up statement(s) Additional comments: Read the essay question carefully, and do exactly what the question asks you to do. Don't go off-topic (i.e.: write about something not related to the question)! If you practice a lot and follow the above advice carefully, you'll have a much better chance of writing a good essay. Good luck!