Obstacles of reform in the Arab world / Adel Aldhahab

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  1. Adel ALdhahab

    Adel ALdhahab عضو فعّال

    التسجيل :
    ‏2005-07-07
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    Obstacles of Reform in the Arab World, and How to Cope With Them

    A strategy to reduce or end the gross human rights violations in this region


    Adel Al-Dhahab
    yemenilawyer@yahoo.com
    23 May 2005




    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Chapter Name Page Number
    Introduction 4
    What is the Arab world? 4
    Who is Seeking Reform? 5
    Survey what Arab wants, trust and think 10
    Comparing Arab region to the rest of world in some related issues 10
    The Characteristics of the Arab World 18

    The Stand of the Arab Countries Concerning the International Human Rights Instruments 20
    The Rank of Arab Countries According to UNDP Standards 24
    What Do We Mean By Reform? 27
    The Importance of Reform 27
    The Relationship Between Terrorism and the Democracy 28
    Islamic movement (threat) 44
    Do Arab have freedom phobia? 48
    The Obstacles to Reform 57
    High desire for power and inheritance of power 57
    Fear from tribunal because of atrocities and corruption 61
    The Rank of Arab Countries in Corruption 63
    How to Cope With Obstacles to Reform 64
    Recommendation of Arab human development report 65
    Solution (recommendation) 67
    Implementing the solution (details) 70
    Appendix 76
    Biography 89
    Acknowledgement 93










    Introduction
    There is a debate in the Arab world about which crises it is facing. Does it have to do with democracy, education, civilization, economics, religion or politics, occupying, targeting? Or is it a combination of these?
    The most subject of concern for the past years in the Arab world has been reform. Jordanian king describe this waves of reform activities as a historical moment that should be sized .This thesis will attempt to address the subject by concentrating on the obstacles for reform and how to manage them.
    What is the Arab world?
    The Arab world is a group of 22 countries with the following characteristics:
    • It is a member of intergovernmental regional organization (League of Arab States which is located in Cairo, Egypt ).
    • Its official language is Arabic
    • It official religion is Islam (except Lebanon).
    • It constitutes one region from Morocco in the west, to Iraq in the east (except Comoros).
    • Since the 11th century until World War I, this region consisted of one state and one history.
    • These countries are: (African wing) Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania -- (10 countries); (Asian wing) Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine -- (12 countries).
    • By adding Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Palestine, Israel and Pakistan to these countries, the entire region is called the Middle East and North Africa . Although according to the United Nations the official classification of “states” is according to continents, frequently the term “Arab states” is used in U.N. reports, and the term Middle East and North Africa is also widely used.
    Who is seeking reform?
    There is a general consensus that there is a lack of democracy and respect for human rights in the Arab world among all concerned parties. In fact there is a judgment by Fatma Mernissi that “Muslims and Arabs are exile in time” Also, there are many invitations for reform for decades from several of the concerned parties. These would include scholars, educators, institutions, opponents, the United Nations and Arab leaders themselves. Finally, the United States had even announced a significant proposal for reform in 2003. The following is a brief summary of the participants:
    Arab nation
    A poll was conducted recently by Aljazeera TV channel prior to the Arab leaders’ summit in Algeria in March 2005. The poll dealt with what Arabs were expecting from the summit. Twenty-seven percent of respondents wanted advancement of the Palestinian cause, 26 percent wanted reform and 11 percent were seeking human rights reforms.
    Recently Lebanese protesters filled the streets of Beirut demanding reform. The reasons behind this demonstration were the extension of President Amiel Lahod’s term instead of holding an election, Syrian military presence in the nation, and the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. The demonstrators numbered many considering the country’s small size. Some people described these demonstrations as “intifadah” of independence. The protests spanned many days, and they led to the resignation of the government and the withdrawal of Syrian forces. Furthermore, an international investigation committee for the assassination of Hariri was established.
    Arab Parliament
    Recently, Egyptian parliament to pass a proposal to amend constitution that allows for the first time in recent history of Egypt to elect a president among more than one candidate .Bahraini Parliament recommended teaching human rights and democracy in primary and basic schools. The Kuwaiti parliament recently recommended giving women suffrage.
    The independent member of Syrian parliament Mamon Alhomsi declared a hunger strike for one week in August 2001 if the Syrian authority did not start reform.

    Arab opponent
    The first wave of thinkers to talk about reform were Mohammed Abdo (head of Al-Azhar religious university in Egypt), Mohamed Rashied Reda (religious leader), Gamal Aldeen Alfghani (Iranian religious leader), Shams Aldeen Alkwakbi and Mohamed Refah Altahtawi in the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Presently, among the renowned proponents for reform are Egyptian opponent Aymen Noor and the Kefyah movement, whose name means “enough.” It opposes President Hosni Mobarak five-term candidacy, and it also opposes inheritance of power. Furthermore, the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood has suggested to the Syrian government to end the record of the past and hold a national discussion ending the state of emergency and fighting corruption. /
    Moreover, a large demonstration held in Bahrain demanded amending the constitution. In the western part of the Arab world, in March 2005, opponents and the regime in Mauritania agreed to hold a dialogue. Also, several Yemeni opposition parties asked for real and serious reform in March 2005.
    Arab NGOs
    In addition, the Arab Organization for Human rights (AOHR), which is one of the most credible sources in the Arab world, produced an extensive report. In its 2003 report, it describes the human rights in the Arab world as sharply decreased because of four elements: fighting terrorism, occupation of Iraq and Palestine, the armed conflict and the American initiative for reform in the region.
    The United Nations
    The United Nations Development Program gathered the efforts of more than 38 highly-educated and intellectual Arabs in 2002, 2003 and 2004. They issued the “Arab Human Development Report.” In 2002 they focused on three areas to address. These were governance, women's empowerment and access to knowledge. In 2003 the report suggested building a knowledgeable society through focusing on guaranteeing key freedoms, disseminating quality education, embedding science, shifting towards knowledge-based production and developing an enlightened Arab knowledge model. The 2004 report, titled “Towards Freedom in the Arab World,” had a fitting motto: “Why did you make people slaves when their mothers bore them free.” It concentrates on freedom as being the main tool to achieve human development in the region.
    All of them concur on the importance of reform. The last report, issued April 5, 2005, in Amman, Jordan was titled “The Time Has Come: A Call for Democracy and Good Governance in the Arab world). / . The final report of 2004 threatened from destroys and collapse that coming they reached their conclusions about the dilemma of freedom in the Arab world based on surveys and statistics that were held by the report group and/or other trust worthy organizations, these data such as:
    (what Arab wants think and trust)
    -Freedom survey that showed Arab people think that political rights are the most non enjoyable rights especially right for minorities for self determinations and the existence of opposition that influence decisions then the right to establish political parties . The majority of Arab subjected to the survey express the mess desire to go to court for freedom cases. Most corruption is in political field and most corrupts people are politicians. The best way to get advantage or service number one choice was (indirect relation-mediation-) and the bribery is the third choice . Also what Arab trust most were prayer places then press. And the less trust worthy was Parliaments .
    Also they built their decision on the following ranking of Arab region among the world.
    -The position (rank) of Arab region among the world is as follows:
    -Role of the state of law (before the last- Africa)
    -Corruption (before the last-Africa
    -questioning rulers (the last position and there is a big gap between Arab and before the last-Africa-)
    -Effectiveness of government (the last place one)
    - Stability and absentia of violence (before the last-Africa-)

    European Union
    The European Union has a vested interest in reform in the Middle East due to its geography: Europe is affected by events in the Arab world, especially in North Africa, due to its proximity to the region. Europe faces an increasing influx of illegal immigrants from North Africa. Since so many negatives arise from such an exodus of Arabs from the Middle East, Europe hopes that bringing stability to the region will decrease the waves of emigration. This has been given utmost priority especially after the 2004 Madrid, Spain train bombings.
    The EU offers a project called European Neighborhood Policy and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Chris Patten, the EU commissioner for external relations addressed this by saying:


    This offers a closer relationship with the EU to those Mediterranean countries willing to work with us on our main issues of concern – the rule of law, democracy and human rights, economic development, and the security threats posed by regional conflicts, terrorism, organized crime and illegal migration. Those who wish to work with us on these challenges will reap the benefits of greater access to the European single market, and to our programs. The European Union has a longstanding commitment to the Middle East, as a friend, as a neighbor and as an important political and economic partner.

    Finally he offers the EU carrot by saying, “Our partners know that there is more assistance available to those who are ready to make progress in the fields of governance and human rights.”
    United States of America
    Many factors play a role in the new U.S. policy. The United States took lessons from its relationship with the Shah of Iran. They built relations with an individual but not with the Iranian people as a whole. US had a distinguished relation with Iran during Shah. When he left; Iran became one of the main threats to the United States. Also, the United States helped Saddam Hussein in his war against Iran including building weapons of mass destruction. The relationship was not with the Iraqi people. Again, Iraq became one of the main threats to the U.S. interest. The United States now understands that the Shah and Saddam are gone but Iraqis and Iranians remain, so the relationship should be built with the entire nation, not just the leader.
    After September 11, 2001, the United States gave unprecedented attention to reform in this region, because it found that: The majority of the 19 hijackers were from very friendly countries to the US such as Egypt, Morocco, Saudi, UAE, Yemen and Lebanon Moreover, the first most-wanted person for the United States is Saudi, the second is Egyptian and the third was Kuwaiti. This happened because of many reasons, among them lack of democracy in their countries.
    One of the recommendations of the 9/11 Commission was “where Muslim governments, even those who are friends, do not respect these principles (referring to human rights), the United States must stand for a better future. One of the lessons of the long cold war was that short term gains in cooperation with the most repressive and brutal governments were too often outweighed by long-term setbacks, for the American state and interest”.
    Daniel Byman in his article “How to Fight Terrorism” in The National Interest periodical, said “Is it possible to win the hearts and minds of citizens of countries like Saudi and Jordan.” Then he wrote, “Muslim world should recognize that U.S. opposes tyranny.” Byman justified this policy by saying Muslim governments are not helping the United States to be become more popular. (Steven Cook gives details about popularity of the US in ME and the hesitation of even Arab liberal to support US in order not to lose their credibility.
    Byman stated in his conclusion: “The failure of radical Islam as a political movement is what makes it so deadly as a source of terrorism.”
    The 9/11 report confirmed that “officials on both sides (United States and Saudi Arabia) were hiding their relationship behind the scenes which resulted in a lack of appreciation between the people of the two nations, and it was difficult for both sides to defend the policy of the other side”.
    Thereafter, the United States started its waves of initiatives; one of the US initiatives is the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), which was declared by President Bush in a speech on November 6, 2003. it has four dimension economic, political education and women for political there is three areas, democracy, good governance and media.
    Also, the United States has declared a plan in Jordan called “U.S. Pledges to Support Arab Leaders Who Fight Corruption and Are Committed to Reform and Freedom.”
    But Steven A. Cook express his wandering that the speeches of American official is something but practice is some thing else when he comments on the numbers of fund that was assigned to US initiatives. ” the task force believes this cut not only undermines the public perception of Washington commitment to encourage change in the Middle East, but more importantly, hinders MEPI’s ability to pursue reform program” also he added” the task force finds a significant gap between President Bush’s speeches about democracy in the region and the reality of US policy intended to support this goal.” more over he concluded that” task force believes that the U.S lakes a strategic vision in its efforts to promote reform, president Bush’s (forward strategy for freedom) has became a catch phrase, but this is doesn’t substitute for a clear and coherent vision for the future of the ME” Steven trays to draw the attention of American administration about the influence of reform on the US on the short run and on the long run “ may present short-term risks to Washington’s strategic interest in the Arab world, the long-run benefits of a more democratic and economically developed ME polities and economies..”.

    The United States is taking further steps. In March 2005, the news confirmed the contacts between Syrian opponent and the American government. /
    American newspapers discuss nowadays about the democratic spring in the Middle East. They talk about the Iraqi, Palestinian, and Saudi local elections, the Lebanese movement to end the Syrian military existence in Lebanon and the recent amendment of the Egyptian constitution after the heated demonstrations in Egypt. Adel Darwish, in his article “Winds of Change” in the Middle East magazine compares the recent events in the Arab world (elections in Saudi, Iraq and Palestine, in addition to the demonstration in Lebanon) with the wave of reform that took over Eastern Europe in 1989.
    National NGOs
    For example the Egyptian National Council, which is a semi-governmental organization and its head is the former U.N. Secretary General Botros Ghali. It issued the first annual report which admits for the first time that there are many torture cases, some people died because of torture, and they suggested to end the state of emergency in Egypt. Moreover, they confirmed the prevalence of arbitrary arrest and the lack of release for some detainees after serving their term.
    The Syrian committee for defending human rights, in its report, criticized the lack of democracy and the gross violations in human rights, and they refused the justification of the conflict with Israel as a reason to postpone reform.
    Arab leaders
    Even Arab leaders themselves, who are in power by force until death, are asking for reform. (Whom they are asking is an enigma, but it seems they are asking each other-- meaning “I am OK, but you should reform”). For example, Qatar hosted three seminars for reform in the region in 2004. The Qatari prince asked for quick reform and said the dispute with Israel is not reason enough for delaying reforms or waiting for reform to come from outside.
    The king of Bahrain asked for more reform in the region because it is the dream of the nations. Yemen recently established a regional democratic institute to teach democracy to the neighboring countries. Finally, the Jordanian king praised American efforts for reform in the region.
    The recent Arab leaders’ summit that was held in Algeria confirmed the commitment for reform.
    The final statement of the summit confirmed the establishment for a transitional parliament for five years that will be placed in Damascus, and it will be elected by the people directly in 2010. They also decided to establish a body to follow up on implementing decisions, and they are moving toward changing the tool of taking decisions. Also, they are giving the chance for the NGOs to have a role, and finally the confirmation of the reform should come step by step.
    League of Arab States
    Amer Musa the secretary general of the Arab League said that reform is an important tool, and he threatened to resign if the Arab states do not pay their membership fee. The reform also effects the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) which is the largest intergovernmental organization in the world after the United Nations. It contains 57 countries, and all the Arab countries are members. Although it was established in 1969, its first time electing a secretary general was in 2004, and this person declared his main agenda as reform.
    The Characteristics of the Arab World
    The Arab world consists of the following characteristics:
    • The power is concentrated in the executive branch
    • The executive branch is concentrated in one person (president, king, prince, etc).
    • If there is a legislative branch, it is by name only, neither effective nor independent
    • Most current leaders in power came by force
    • The judicial power is not independent and it is affected by executive power
    • In non-monarchial countries, the rulers appear as a party, but in most cases, an ethnic or tribal group is behind the scenes. For example, in Syria the official rulers are AlBaath party, but the real rulers are the people who belong to a certain region (Kardaha) in Northern Syria. In Iraq during Saddam’s regime, the official rulers were AlBaath party, but in fact the real rulers were member of (AlMajeed) a family and people from the city of Tikrit, which is an area in Northern Iraq. In Yemen, the official rulers are the GCP party, but the real rulers are a family of the president and his tribe (Sanhan) which is an area southeast of the capital Sanaa. In Libya the official rulers are the Public People Conference, but the power wielders are a group that belongs to a place called Sert which is in central Libya.
    • There is deep legacy of a monarchy.

    The Stand of the Arab Countries Concerning the International Instruments
    Below is a table that contains the stand of Arab countries concerning the international human rights instrument according to United Nations Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights (its web site that visited on April 12, 2005) There are usually two numbers inside the gap. The top one indicates the year the instrument was signed by the state, and the lower one indicates the year the instrument come into force. If the number has a line, it indicates there is reservation or declaration. An asterisk means it is not a member.

    Country CAT CCPR CCPR1 CEDAW CERD CESCR CRC
    Algeria 85
    89 68
    89 89
    89 96
    96 72
    72 89
    89 93
    93
    Bahrain 98
    98 *
    * 02
    02 90
    90 * 92
    92
    Djibouti 02
    02 02
    03 03
    03 98
    99 * 02
    03 90
    91
    Egypt 86
    87 67
    82 * 81
    81 66
    69 67
    82 90
    90
    Iraq * 69
    76 * 86
    86 69
    70 69
    76 94
    94
    Jordan 91
    91 72
    76 * 80
    92 74
    74 72
    76 90
    91
    Kuwait 96
    96 96
    96 * 94
    94 68
    69 96
    96 91
    91
    Lebanon 00
    00 72
    76 * 97
    97 71
    71 72
    76 91
    91
    Libya 89
    89 70
    76 89
    89 89
    89 68
    69 70
    76 93
    93
    Mauritania 04
    04 * * 01
    01 66
    89 04
    05 90
    91
    Morocco 86
    93 77
    79 * 93
    93 67
    71 77
    79 90
    93
    Oman * * * * 03
    03 * 96
    97
    Qatar 00
    00 * * * 76
    76 * 92
    95
    Saudi 97
    97 * * 00
    00 97
    97 * 96
    96
    Somalia 90 90 90 * 67 90 02
    Sudan 86
    86 76
    86 * * 77
    77 86
    86 90
    90
    Syria 04
    04 69
    76 * 03
    03 69
    69 69
    76 90
    93
    Tunisia 87
    88 68
    76 * 80
    85 66
    69 68
    76 90
    92
    United Arab Emirates * * * 04
    04 74
    74 * 97
    97
    Yemen 91
    91 87
    87 * 84
    84 72
    72 87
    87 90
    91

    One can discern the following points from the chart:
    • Arab countries vary: Some countries joined all, some countries joined some and the others they did not sign more than one instrument.
    • In some cases there is delay between signing the convention and ratifying it.
    • The most instruments that Arab countries have reservation on are the CRC and CEDWA. (14 Arab countries made reservations).
    • Some countries like Iraq and Syria have obliged with most of the instruments as early as the1960s, yet human rights in these countries ranked among the worst in the region. A more obvious example is Libya that signed the entire instrument including the first optional Protocol of CCPR, yet it is one of the worst countries for human rights record in the region .
    • On the other hand, the U.A.E just signed two instruments, and one of the two were in 2004, and Oman and Qatar has just signed one, but human rights in these three countries are much better than Syria and Iraq.
    This proves that the Arab world is not like the western countries. When there is a problem in human rights field in Western countries, usually the solution is to amend or pass or cancel a law. For example, the death penalty for juveniles in the United States was a significant concern for human rights activists, and it was abolished by a judgment by the U.S. Supreme Court (Roper v. Simmons). According to the U.S. legal system this becomes law. But in the Arab world, governments are ready without any limitations to sign, ratify and to pass any kind of conventions or laws in one night, but it is not ready to implement 20 percent of these laws. They think signing is a good public relations strategy to satisfy donor countries and international organizations, or to avoid pressure, but actual implementation is a different story.
    As an attorney from Yemen, when I was raising with judges the necessity to implement certain international instruments because Yemen obliges with them, the reply was always, “We are not in Switzerland.”
    The importance of this point is that the solution for reform does not lie in pressuring Arab countries to sign and ratify all instruments including optional protocols because they will simply do that, and the situation will remain as is. This does not mean ignoring the importance of joining these instruments, but one must look to that as a first step that equals 10 percent of the reform process, and implementing it is 90 percent of the reform process. This fact also is important because some other Arab countries look to these instruments as strange things that have nothing to do with their culture. These instruments are the product of western Christian culture and according to this view, the Arabs have their own instruments for respecting human rights, which is Islam. This is another reason why in reforming the Middle East, one must be flexible to gain advancements in reform as defined in the beginning of this paper.
    Reporters Without Borders organization issued on May, 3, 2005 its annual report about the freedom of press in the world. The Arab world is the worst region in the world. In 2004 they took into account the standards of the number of journalists imprisoned, kidnapped, killed and disappeared.
    The Stand of the Arab Countries Among Others According to UNDP standards
    The following information, from Arab Human Development Report 2004, offers data from 2001:
    Country Rank of development among the world
    Algeria 108
    Bahrain 40
    Djibouti 154
    Egypt 120
    Iraq *
    Jordan 90
    Kuwait 44
    Lebanon 80
    Libya 58
    Mauritania 152
    Morocco 125
    Oman 74
    Qatar 47
    Saudi 77
    Somalia *
    Sudan 139
    Syria 106
    Tunisia 92
    United Arab Emirates 49
    Yemen 149

    From this table the following can be extrapolated:
    • There is a range of rankings among Arab countries, some countries rank in the 40s and others above 100. In fact, eight countries rank below 100, four countries in the 40s (oil countries), one ranks 58th (Libya), and five countries rank between 60 and 90.
    • If one averages the rank of all Arab countries, it will be 95, and this is a weak number, because of the following;
    • Somalia and Iraq were excluded from the study. If Somalia and Iraq were included, the average ranking would fall to a bit above 100 because of the weak HDI situation in these two countries.
    • The countries that took 40s are the less population in Arab world (its sum are less than 7 million- Arab world is about 300 million-). So if we will exclude these four countries (7 million) the rank of the rest countries (293 million) will be 108.
    • Also it law number comparing to the world because Arab countries were among the first countries to gain independence after the World War II
    What do we mean by reform?
    All concerned parties agreed about the necessity of reform, but each side is looking at the case from his angle and interest.
    America in its initiative about the Middle East focused in four areas for reform: economic, politics, education and women.
    Saudi Arabia in its first recent election did not include the right for women to vote, which means women’s rights is not a current priority for them.
    The EU thinks reforms means “The principles of democracy require free and fair multi-party elections that enable power to be transferred, freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of association.”
    Steven A. Cook said” democracies, feature of rule of law. Mechanism through which citizen can hold their ladders accountable, and the outcome of elections can’t be predetermined or changed ex post facto.. “
    For the purpose of this paper, reform is defined as all necessary steps that must be taken to ensure the rights necessary for people to enjoy living as human beings: These include, but are not limited to: existence of the three main powers (judicial, executive, and legislative), and a separation of powers among the branches. Also, these rights include changing government, the accountability of leaders, and the right for real election that has real competition and that is free from pre determination. Guarantee for right of defense before independent judicial institutions.
    According to the recent Arab human development report that was issued on April 5, 2005 the immediate reforms must include the following:
    • Total respect for the key freedoms of opinion, expression and association.
    • Ending all types of marginalization and discrimination against social groups and minorities.
    • Guaranteeing the independence of the judiciary and ending reliance on military tribunals and other exceptional courts.
    • Abolishing the ‘states of emergency’ that have become permanent features of governance in the region.
    The Importance of Reform
    There is a question why it is important to implement reform in the Arab world and how much this will affect human rights in the region. Is there international interest for reform?

    What is the relation between terrorism and democracy?
    There are many studies that address this relationship, and there is a belief that the concern of Western countries about reform in this region is because of the relation between lack of democracy and terrorism (when there is a lack of democracy there is a high possibility for terrorism to exist).
    Steven A. Cook, his draft report, independent task force on U.S Foreign policy toward reform in the Arab world sponsored by CFR said U.S reform programs including G8 initiative illustrate in implicit belief in Washington that the nature of governance and politics in Arab countries has a direct effect on the national security of the U.S.
    The following is a chart of U.S classification for the states that sponsor terrorism:
    Country Designation Date
    Cuba March 1, 1982
    Iran January 19, 1984
    Libya December 29, 1979
    North Korea January 20, 1988
    Sudan August 12, 1993
    Syria December 29, 1979
    Iraq Removed from the list on October, 2004

    The following points can be deduced:
    • Four out of seven of these countries are Arab countries, which consist 57 percent (until October 2004 and 3 out of seven, which constitute 42% for the time being) of the designated terrorist countries in the world, although the Arab world constitutes about 4 percent of the world’s population . If one takes into account Iran, which is not Arab but Middle Eastern Islamic country , the statistic will jump to 71 percent (until October 2004 and 57% for the moment) of the terrorist countries as being Muslim, Middle Eastern countries. (Muslims are just about 20 percent of the world’s population ).
    • The four Arab countries on the list are one of the worst countries in respecting dignity of human beings in this region.
    • Looking outside the Middle East, both Cuba and North Korea, have a less than stellar human rights record. which confirm the relation between lack of democracy and terrorism.

    According to the U.S. list of main terrorist groups (40 main names)
    • Twenty-four are Arab organizations which make up 30 percent of the entire international list.
    • These organizations exist in 10 Arab countries, and it has activities in almost all Arab countries’ territories .
    • Below is a table that elucidates the existence of these organizations in Arab countries:

    Country Organization
    Palestine 7
    Egypt 3
    Iraq 3
    Algeria 2
    Lebanon 2
    Libya 1
    Yemen 1
    Somalia 1
    Tunisia 1
    Morocco 1

    • Two of them are international organization such as Al Qaeda group, the most targeted group in the world for the time being.
    • 22 of these organizations are Arab organizations, which consists of 55 percent from the international American list and (according to my observation of the names) other organizations are Islamic organizations. (The majority of them do exist in Arab world, Pakistan, Turkey, and Chechnya).
    • Many of the Islamic organizations that exist outside the Arab region are lead by or have members from Arab countries (because of the historical role of Arabs in Islam, their role in spreading Islam, their language is the religious language of Islam, they were the rulers of Islamic states a majority of the time and their countries were most of the time the capital of Islamic states—an Islamic state is that which existed from Indonesia in the East to Morocco in the West ). For example, a Chechen organization, whose leader is Shaml Basayev, enlists many Saudis and Yemenis such as Khatab (Saudi national), who was an important figures in this organization. In addition, Arabs traveled abroad for jihad, one of their reasons being the lack of democracy in their countries forbade them from expressing their religious values or practicing them in their native countries).

    Also, by examining the list of terrorist supporters, groups, and members that are designated by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, one will find that the list consists mostly of Arabic and Middle Eastern names, with few other names. (it is a list of more than 100 individuals/organizations).
    Moreover, if we look to the Terrorist Exclusion List Designees announced by the U.S. State Department, one will find 59 organizations. By looking at these organizations, and from their names, one can easily tell that an overwhelming majority of them are Arab organizations.
    The 9/11 commission in its report concluded that Saudi Arabia is one of the most conservative countries in the world, and although it has had very good relations with the United States, the fact is that Saudi Arabia is the one who produced 15 of 19 of the hijackers and donations for Al Qaeda were collected from Saudis. Steven A. Cook, in his draft said” in fact non of the 19 hijackers on September 11th were produced of this system(referring to educational system of Arab world)”

    The EU’s list of terrorist persons and groups include two lists: the first is a list of persons, groups and entities referred to in Article 1, which include 52 names until June 2003. The second list includes 34 groups and entities. Many of them are Arab and Muslim individuals and organizations.
    Therefore, the new policy in this region should take into account these facts as some scholars describe it, “ … Middle East democracy is best antidote to Islamist terrorism..”
    Some scholars have a different opinion which equates democracy with less extremists is not true, because history gives examples like the Muslim Brotherhood, a movement that was established in the 1920s during the democratic regime in Egypt. Also, the ETA in Spain and Irish Republic Army both grew in democratic countries, and they concluded that in case democracy will take place in the Arab world, it will be a good environment for more radical groups to grow and do even more harm. (Response to this argument will be found later in this chapter).
    Walter Laquer, in his book “No End War: Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century) addresses this relation. In his first chapter, ‘Root of Terrorism,’ he says “terrorism is like a revolution that occurs not when the situation is a disaster, but when various political, economic and social trends coincide.”
    Laquer continues his assessment by saying,, “terrorism has causes, exnihilo nihil fit, nothing comes out of nothing. There is a connection between terrorism and economic and social situation …and the political state of affairs.”
    Laquer describes the relationship by saying removing the roots of terrorism will end terrorism. He uses the analogy, “drain the swamp and the mosquitoes will disappear.”
    Laquer gave examples of the first wave of terrorism in modern history. Russia, for example, was one of the worst European countries in human rights from 1881 to 1904. Laquer also gave the example of Ireland. Laquer gives opposing examples such as Uruguay which was one of the few democratic countries in Latin America, but it was riddled with terrorism.
    Using Spain and Britain as opposing examples is not correct because the lack of democracy is not the only reason for terrorism but it is the main reason (as will be discussed later). On the other hand, even in Britain and Spain, most terrorist acts are carried out by groups that are asking for human rights (the right for self-determination). Laquer discusses whether poverty is a reason for terrorism, which he thinks is one of reasons that lead to terrorism, and he mentioned this as an example in the Arab world (Palestine, Algeria). One of poverty’s reasons is lack of democracy; (see the chapter of this thesis that discusses the rank of Arab countries in corruption) because when there is lack of democracy there is lack of distribution of wealth. Also, the lack of democracy means a lack of ability to observe and criticize governments and fight corruption, and there is a weak judicial system unable to fight corruption.
    Libyan president Moammar AlQadafi has a different opinion on the link between poverty and terrorism. He thinks poverty is not the reason for terrorism, and he supported his opinion by citing Usama bin Laden’s wealth.
    The 9/11 commission shares the same opinion by asserting that many terrorists came from relatively well-off families.
    Laquer also discusses whether human population growth is a reason for terrorism. He gives the example that the TFR (total fertility rate) is 7 in Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria and Jordan; he thinks this is a factor for terrorism. Although I disagree with the positive relation between terrorism and population growth because terrorism’s reasons are in my opinion oppressing, extreme ideas, lack of education and poverty, but population growth is not a direct or influencing element,, if one assumes this to be true. This occurs because of a lack of good governance, and a lack of governance exists when there is lack of democracy. Because if we have good governance that means there is increasing of the awareness of population growth also there is policies to reduce it and there is encouragement for people to follow certain policies.
    Laquer also discusses the relation between unemployment and terrorism. He says, “A high percentage of youth unemployment can be found in all Arab countries, rich and poor countries. Governments have failed to make any real efforts to find jobs”. Unemployment is a contributing factor as mentioned earlier, and this occurs because of corruption and a lack of ability to use resources in the correct way.
    There was a terrorist act that happened in Yemen in 2001 in which an unemployed youth in his mid-20s hijacked an airplane in order to go to Iraq (as two unemployed Saudi youths did two months before this event). The hijacker did not know the U.S. ambassador was aboard the plane. When he was arrested, among other things, he said his actions were due to his joblessness. The following day the Yemeni popular newspaper (Annas) lead with the headline, “All of us are Gaber Nasar (the name of the hijacker).” This means, everyone in the nation is oppressed, and is a candidate to resort to violence.
    Steven A. Cook in his draft report address the relation between education and terrorism” the crucial connection is poorly-educated, under-or un-employed individuals who present a potential reservoir for extremist groups”
    Chris Patten the EU commissioner for external relations gives an explanation of why the EU is concerned about reform in the Middle East by saying, “But to tackle terrorism, we have also to address the political, economic and social contexts which allow terrorist organizations to flourish.”
    On the other hand, the Libyan president claimed in his speech in the recent Arab leaders’ summit that lack of democracy is not a reason for terrorism because terrorist groups do not believe in democracy.
    There is a link between terrorism and a lack of democracy as mentioned earlier. Although it is not ideal for most scholars to focus on Al Qaeda and/or Usama bin Laden when talking about terrorism, because terrorism began long before them and it will continue after them, the following comparison may help more in understanding the link between the lack of democracy and terrorism.
    The comparison is between the late Rafik AlHareri, / who was the prime minister of Lebanon, and Usama bin Laden. Both individuals came from poor countries as immigrants to Saudi Arabia, both of them made close to $1 billion, and both of them attained Saudi nationality. Both of them were living the rags-to-riches dream.
    But AlHareri is from a country (Lebanon ) that has a marginal democracy, he returned to his country in the end of 1980s and established a TV station, radio, newspapers, and cultural centers, charities, etc. Then he started to contribute to his nation and spread his thought because of the freedom to do so, and he was able to occupy the prime minister position for a significant time.
    But bin Laden, because he is originally from a country (Yemen ) where there is no marginal democracy, when he was in Yemen he was participating in the local war with the current Yemeni president in 1994. As soon as the war ended, he was harassed to leave the country. One can imagine how the Yemeni government would have reacted if he requested to establish a TV or radio station, or another organization. In Yemen there is no single private radio or TV channel, but in Lebanon almost every party has one.
    So bin Laden went to Sudan where he could not find a safe haven. No one can say for sure what his plan was or what he was thinking, assuming he was a rational person; he would have established a party and invited people to support his plan. Since this did not happen, one can assume he pictured himself in a cave and could not enjoy his wealth, so perhaps this lead him to try to die as a hero (from his viewpoint) by carrying out terrorist acts.
    The same could apply to any other terrorist. I was a witness to the assassination of Gar Allah Omer, the second person in Yemeni socialism party in 2003 by a fanatic in Sanaa. At the same time, the assassin’s associate killed in three American Medical Doctors who were trying to spread Christianity. The killer declared why he did what he did. He said he read his rights in the constitution, therefore he submitted a complaint against the Yemeni president (for what he believes were crimes the president committed) to the General Prosecutor. Instead of investigating the complaint, the complainant was detained by Yemeni intelligence for six months. After his release he decided to submit his grievance in an aggressive and criminal way.
    Moreover, the second person in Al Qaeda, Aymen AlZawaheri of Egypt, was a student in Cairo University, who had some unpopular Islamic views, and by that time, this was a reason for targeting. Since he could not express himself, he went to Afghanistan (a safe haven in the 1980s) and started to express and implement his belief in what he thought was his only choice.
    If he was allowed in his country of origin to have an outlet for his thoughts and to gather with similar people in a political organization, the result might have been different.
    The same could be said about the third ranking member of Al Qaeda (the official speaker of Al Qaeda - Kuwait), and so on.
    Other Opinions about the Importance of Reform
    Reform (freedom) according to Sheikh Yusuf AlQardawi, who is widely recognized as the most spiritual religious leader for most Muslim and Islamic movements, in particular the Muslim Brotherhood, is the highest priority for the time being. He was talking about priority for Muslims for the time being, he said, “Freedom is a higher priority than implementing Islamic law.”
    Reform in the Middle East according to the U.S. viewpoint is what President Bush declared: “Sixty years of Western nations excusing and accommodating the lack of freedom in the Middle East did nothing to make us safe--because in the long run, stability cannot be purchased at the expense of liberty. As long as the Middle East remains a place where freedom does not flourish, it will remain a place of stagnation, resentment, and violence ready for export. And with the spread of weapons that can bring catastrophic harm to our country and to our friends, it would be reckless to accept the status quo.”
    Nikolas Gvosdev describes in his article “On Liberty” the new American policy in the region as America’s interest and America’s values becoming one thing.
    According to UNDP, the lack of freedom is the first obstacle among three obstacles for human development in the Arab world. Also, according to the UNDP Human Development Report, the JDP of Spain is higher than the JDP of all the Arab nations combined. I think this means; resources of the Arab world are not used in the correct way because of a lack of good governance .
    The Obstacles to Reform?
    The question is until when Arab nations live a degrading life and are not working to remove or reduce their suffering? Why Arab leaders refuse to make real and honest steps toward democracy and respect of human rights?
    Arab leaders deal with such invitations negatively such as;
    • Oppressing the people who propose the reform
    Some times this is done by accusing them of degrading the repetition of their country, publishing false news or terrorism. In Egypt, there is a famous human rights activist named Saad Aldeen Ibrahim, who is the director of Abn Khaldon organization, which is human rights NGO. He published some research about the Egyptian parliament election. He was detained under the accusation that he was degrading the reputation of Egypt. Ibrahim describes his experience in prison and his observations about oppressed prisoners in his article in Foreign Policy . The American government froze some of the financial aid to Egypt to pressure the government into releasing . Also, the Egyptian government has withdrawn the parliamentary immunity from member of Parliament Aymen Noor, and he was arrested minutes after the withdrawal under a justification that he forged signatures when he established his party, but there is a valid belief that this happened because of his opposition to re-electing President Mobarak and his son as successor. Also, he was accused of belonging to the United States and he was labeled as the son of Madeline Albright and the boyfriend of Condoleezza Rice .
    Saudi reformes Ali Aldomeny and Ali Alhamed were sentenced for 6 to 9 years detention under accusation that disobeying the authority and spreading interrupting news this was because of their request to establish restricted monarchy in Saudi and government is targeting Saeed AlFaquh, who is a refugee in London, because of his opposition activity against the Saudi royal family. His bank accounts were frozen because of suspicion of link to terrorism . Also many Saudis who has link with reformers lost their jobs
    Yemen detained the journalist Abdulkareem Alkhaywani because of his series of articles that opposes the president’s plan to prepare his son to take power after him. This was in August 2004 until he was released because of international pressure in March 2005 .
    Pretending that they are moving toward democracy and respect of human rights. Steven A. Cook describe that “Arab officials have responded to the administrations calls for change by positioning themselves as reformers”

    • Sovereignty: Arab leaders claim it is a domestic local issue that no foreign power has the right to talk about it like the Arab leaders’ position toward the recent American proposal for reform. Their official position for reform was declared in their summit in Tunisia on May 23, 2004, in which they used their private culture and solving the dispute with Israel as a front for rejecting intervention by foreign powers .
    The former member of the Jordanian parliament Tojan Fiesel commented on the article that was published by Javier Solana the high representative of the EU policy in AlHayat Arabic newspaper. Tojan expresses her anger because Solana declared that reform must come from inside. She asks how this can be possible when rulers have police and intelligence to repress any movement for reform . I agree with her, because if we will rely on simply the inside to accomplish reform, prisons will await the reform seekers. Excluding the external factors in reform means bad results, one of which is change by force. Bernard Lewis in one of his books express that the future of the region is in hands of Arab nation not super powers nations that interfere when its interest (oil, market) are jeopardized, but it seems an old opinion for Lewis (book was published in 1993)

    The old justification that “our priority is food and infrastructure”
    According to this argument establishing development, building infrastructure should be achieved first, and then political reform can come. One can reply to this argument by saying that providing food and establishing infrastructure needs good governance and such governance would exist if there is freedom to criticize the administration and guarantee the expenditures will be spent in the ideal way. Also, one can note the rank of Arab countries in corruption (later of this paper), which confirms there is no real development with such regimes.
    Bernard Lewis thinks that Iraq was very successful during pre Saddam’s regime to use its resources to build infrastructure and distinguished schools compared to the rest of Arab world . During Saddam’s regime, Iraq also built more distinguished, materialistic things, but I agree with Bernard Lewis that despite all this effort, it was destroyed during Saddam’s regime because the lack of democracy allowed Saddam to take unilateral decisions such as invading Kuwait and do many other things without fearing any kind of questioning .
    • Conflict with Israel
    Some think that the Arabs’ priority is to liberate Palestinian land and people. This is the central case for Arabs for 50 years. They do not have the ability to carry out any projects until achieving this goal, and they may consider such a position as a tool to pressure western countries to pressure Israel to withdraw from the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Bernard Lewis makes Western readers understand exactly what does that means for Arab world by his de......ion to the case” The question regarding Israel is, should Israel exist?”. Lewis Add” the failure of the companied Arab forces to prevent the birth of Israel gave rise to pre found heart searching in the Arab countries and within a few years to the violent removal of the rulers and some times even of the regimes that were held responsible ” in a survey by team of UN human development report of Arab world about what get most attention from Arab people, Palestinian case get from 69 % to 96% of their attention.
    Sheikh AlQardawi, the well-known religious figure, thinks freedom is the way to liberate Palestine (Once again kicking out Israel from Palestine is the source of any legitimacy in the Arab world, and under such a facade most violations of human rights is happening). According to AlQardawi, slaves do not liberate themselves, but free people fight like lions .
    Regarding the EU position, whether reform should come after reaching a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict, he said “a peace settlement is not a precondition for reforms or vice versa. We are politically committed to both” .

    • Islamic threat
    President Mobarak recently has declared the result if a real democracy is established in the Arab region. An Islamic movement will take place, and he described the Islamic movement, especially the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, as a terrorist group . Others also talk about the Islamic threat. According to this point , nowadays the majority of Arabs are standing behind the Islamic movement as an option, and this movement does not believe in democracy, so if they take power it is easy for them to make a justification to remain in power, (abusing the system as Hitler did) and if such a group will be in power the world will be at threat . Bernard Lewis when addressing the main threats of democracy in Arab world, said, “Most dangerous are the so-called Islamic fundamentalists, those for whom democracy is part of the greater evil emanating from the West” .
    The people who raise this issue usually address the West, who is the main player in encouraging reform and who has more things against the Islamic movement. Especially, this movement already has a bad relationship with the West (some of these movements are considered terrorist groups by the United States or the European Union, and many leaders of these groups are considered terrorists ). Also some other members are accused of being supporters for terrorists groups.

    In my opinion, we should ask if these groups are a threat because of lack of democracy, or will they be a threat if there is a democracy? I believe if they consider it a threat it is because of a lack of democracy, because now they have their agenda which is:
    • Implementing Islamic law
    • Making real development
    • Helping liberating Palestine (all Arab regimes and politicians will claim to do so because it is a source of legitimacy).
    By denying their right, means encouraging them to change by force (since they are not able to do so by peace), and since the current regimes have failed to achieve the nation’s dreams .
    Marrina and Thomas in their article think democracy without the participation of these groups is impossible . They added “the future of democracy in the region depends on whether there are a sufficient number of such actors in a democratic process, rather than spoilers in the present autocratic states and whether incumbent governments stop hiding behind the Islamist threat and accept that all their citizens have the right to participate”. Also, they use examples of eight Arab elections in which Islamists participated (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco and Yemen) they think these elections led to moderate results for this movements and the current Islamic government in Turkey that gives an encouraging example. Finally Steven Cook shares says” the task forces believes that the continued exclusion or marginalization of Islamist movements (with US support) risks perpetuating the political problems the Arab countries of the ME are currently experiencing
    If there is a strong reason to believe these groups may abuse the system, one can talk about a step-by-step plan. It can be experimented in one country, and if it is a success another nation can be approached. Or one can take guarantees and build institutions that will protect the democratic system. Those who talk about the Islamic threat use it to justify continuing the oppressive regimes, but one has to take this seriously. (We do not want to replace Mussolini by Hitler, or more appropriately as said in Arabic, we do not want to seek refuge from the desert by stepping into a fire).
    Recently a surprising meeting was held in Lebanon between American scholars and Islamic leaders especially from the Palestinian movement Hamas and Lebanese organization Hezbollah (who are considered terrorist groups by the United States ) to discuss their relationship with the United States and U.S. policy in the region. .
    After the Algerian parliamentary election of 1991 which the Islamic movement won, the former French president Francois Mitterrand declared –while he was visiting Oman-“We will not allow the enemy of democracy to abuse the election boxes.”
    Furthermore, there is a dialogue that was held recently in Doha about the relationship between the United States and the Islamic world. There was some discussion about the stand of the United States from the Islamic movement in case it will take power.
    I think such dialogue was a must especially after the result of the best Arabic democracy (Iraqi election of 2005) which resulted in the victory of the Islamic movement of Shiites with a majority 47 percent, which has strong ties to Iran and they have military militias.
    • Freedom phobia
    There is a sole opinion by Michael A Ledeen in his article (The Advance of Freedom: U.S. Foreign Policy and Democratic Revolution) that was published recently in Harvard International Review . Ledeen quipped that it’s as if there is something in the Arab or Muslim genetic makeup that makes them incapable of self-government and somehow allergic or freedom phobic .
    Bernard Lewis thinks differently. He believes that Islamic culture has a deep legacy in limiting the power of the ruler, and also Islamic legacy gives the right for resisting an unjust governor . Lewis comments on the famous principles of Islamic thought such as the statement “Don’t obey a creature against his creator” and the speech of the first governor after the Prophet Muhammad that stated, “There is no obedience in sin.” Lewis comments that, “This is more than the right for revolution that appears in Western political thought.” It is a duty for revolution .
    Lewis’ assessment is true in the theoretical part of the legacy, but the first theory is the practical legacy in Arab history. The following examples can support this:
    AbdulRahman Alemad who was in the mid of 1990s the head of the Islah party parliament group in Yemen said, “Yemenis proved during history that they easily follow their governors” . Also there is a statement by Yemeni scholar Ibrahim Alwazeer that says: “Yemenis are like a dirty female goat-any male goat can mate with it.” There is agreement that Saddam is one of the big criminals in modern history (millions of Iraqis suffered because of his regime), yet he was widely supported by the Iraqi people, and millions were going to the streets to chant his name and yelling, “We sacrifice our life so that you will live longer.” The same thing to a lesser degree was happening in Syria during Bashar AlAssad’s father’s rule . Tunisian former President Habib Borgybah, in 1975 he served for three periods and the constitution didn’t allow for more than that, but Tunisian parliament amend the constitution and with full agreement, all members elected him as a president FOR LIFE
    In Egypt, Gamal Abdulnasser (whose Communist regime ruled Egypt from 1953 to 1970), was widely supported by the Egyptians. Then, during President Anwar Sadat’s rule (1970 to 1980), who was westernized and liberal, Egyptians were supporting him. Currently President Mobarak (who is ruling since 1980), who is a moderate between Nasser and Sadat, is also widely supported by Egyptians. The same situation occurred with President Yasser Arafat even when there was reasonable evidence that he took millions of dollars from the Palestinians’ money for his personal interest . He was widely supported by his people. In Yemen one will find thousands of Yemenis who are hungry on the streets and unemployed, but when the motorcade of the president pulls up, they rush to see the president and call for him .
    The following reasons may give explanations of why these situations are so common (freedom phobia):
    • In Islam, there is a famous statement that the Sunni Islamic school (which is what most Arabs adhere to) lived during history on the tops of rulers (adopted and supported by rulers) , so this school is justifying the continuation of rulers and making clear that obeying them is a part of obeying God. They use especially the famous statement of the Prophet Muhammad, “Listen and obey even if you will be ruled by a black slave. ”
    • There is a famous statement that “a bad governor is better than permanent collapse” . (Bernard Lewis likes to translate it as “An hour of anarchy is worse than a hundred years of tyranny”) .
    • There is a famous statement that says since the Islamic state (also called the Islamic egg) is protected from the enemies of Islam; it does not matter if the governor is a dictator” . (this give explanation why saddam is still consider a hero for many Arabs until this moment because of his try to build weapons of massive distraction and challenging Israel).
    • The dark history and deep legacy of oppression for hundreds of years ; for example, the first and the most famous movement of reform in Islamic and Arabic history is the movement of AlHussein Bin Ali bin Abu Taleb (lived in the seventh century) who is the son of the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. During his time as the fifth governor of Muslims, Maoyah Bin Abu Sofyan, was the first one to make the promise to the nation to let his son follow him (this was in Damascus and ironically, the first one to inherit power after his father in modern Arab history was in Damascus also). Since it is an important events in Muslim history that still a key issue in understanding currents affaires in Muslim world we will give the historical event” When Moyat-the fifth governor of Muslims- gathered the key people to give promise for his son, the people were hesitate to do so, then a man rose to his feet. Drawing his sword a hand span from the scabbards, he said the commander of faithful-governor- is that one and he pointed to Moawyat and if he dies, then that one and he pointed to Yazid-the son-, and if any one objects then this one and he pointed to his sword. Then Maoyat said addressing the speaker you are the prince of Orgtyes “
    When this happened AlHussein fought to stop that, and he lost his life and more than 70 members of his family in what became later one of the most religious places (karbala) in 680 . Then there was the revolution of Zobier Bin Alowam in 683, in this revaluation (Kabba) the most holy place on the face of earth according to Muslim faith was destroyed in this fight . Then the revaluation of Zied bin Ali in the eighth century.
    -More Tragedy is the speech of the first Governor of Abasyeen State that follow Amoyeen in second century of Islamic calendar (8th centaury European calendar), in his speech when he became governor he said, ( I am the criminal that allowed atrocities, I am the revolutionary that speak loudly, we became a governor9indicating to his family) and we will be until the day of judgment ”
    -the first Islamic governor of Egypt was Amro bin Alass, who describes Ehyption as that” they are collected by stick and distributing by stick) which means they just follow force and not just any force a small dose of force is enough for them
    And many many other that makes history of Arab history of atrocities including period during Turkey’s Ottoman Empire.
    Because of such bloody history, there is a culture that was created that encourages negativity, hiding and avoiding problems. In Jordan there is a proverb that says, “Put your head among heads and say, ‘Oh, Allah, protect my head,’” meaning just do like others, avoid clash, avoid challenging the governor, if you will not do so, you may lose your head. There is a famous statement in the Arab world that says for the person who is curious about what is going in the country; you are not the trustee of Adam on his sons.
    In Yemen after the revolution in 1962, there was a local war between the monarchial regime and revolutionaries. Whenever troops of one side come, most Yemeni people welcome them, and in the same day if other troops come, they welcome them also. .
    There is an Arabic proverb that says, “The one who will marry our mother, he will became our uncle.” This means the one who will be in power must be accepted and deal with him accordingly . Most Arabs might prefer this non-confrontational way of life.
    There was even a religious theory (although it doesn’t exist any more, but it helps in understanding the Arab mentality) that spread during Maoyat period –the fifth governor of Muslims- which claimed that God wills things to happen to humans. One of these is that God decides who will be the governor. Since this is the will of Allah, the theory defends; challenging the governor would be the same as challenging the will of Allah .
    Also there I s a theory in Islamic tradition called (toqyah ) which allows to the person to hide his faith and to pretend any opinion to avoid problem or to gain interest. More over some religious scholars said” if you are forced to do any thing, so do it except two things, killing other person, or doing illegal ***” so forgery of election is ok, sentencing a journalist for ten years is ok, since a judge receive a threat call from intelligence!!!
    On the other hand, other scholars who oppose such a theory, such as Marina Ottaway and Thomas Carothers, in their article (“Middle East Democracy”) under the title “Arab world have historic propensity toward authoritarianism” said,
    Arab rulers have been highly authoritarian, but no more so than European or Asian rulers for most of history. After they give a summary about rulers’ backgrounds in the Arab world, they concluded that the “Arab world, for most of its history, was quite similar to the rest of the world ”. Moreover, they want to make their opinion clear by saying, “To ascribe the lingering Arab absence of democracy to some unique historic affinity for authoritarianism, stemming from Arab culture, Islam, or any thing else is thus factually incorrect”.
    I do believe this is the MAIN obstacles from my observation as Arab person; this is our main problem freedom phobia (fearing governors). Any other obstacles are just secondary obstacles.

    • Islam as a culture
    Many scholars believe that Islam as a religion and as a main source of Arab culture is the obstacle. They say Islam does not fit human rights standards . This claim came from many reasons such as the belief that freedom and democracy exists in secular systems and Islam does not recognize secularism. Bernard Lewis from his view quoted from sources he does not name that, “That is how Muslims are, that is how Muslims have always been, and there is nothing the West can do about it.” But Bernard disagree with this opinion by saying, “That is a misreading of history.” Another scholar Fatma Mernissi said” when we speak about the conflict between Islam and democracy, we are in fact talking about an eminently legal conflict. If the basic resource of Islam is Quran, for democracy it is effectively the United Nations Charter, which is above all a super law”
    I think the problem is not with Islam but about certain conservative interpretations of Islam that have existed from time to time. Michael Ledeen in his article “The Advance of Freedom” said, “But those chronologically and culturally challenged Arab and Muslims created great civilizations that preserved scientific knowledge and philosophical wisdom at a time when Europe was mired in the Dark Age”. It is worth repeating what Marrina and Thomas said, “To ascribe the lingering Arab absence of democracy to some unique historic affinity for authoritarianism, stemming from Arab culture, Islam, or any thing else is thus factually incorrect.”
    I believe the common understanding of Islamic culture is an obstacle not Islam is a religion, for example many politician now a days they are considered religious scholar in the same time and there is a wrong understanding of Islam that religious scholars should be respected and not to be criticized, this create corruption many people pretend to be religious scholars just to gain popularity and to avoid criticism. When you will try to criticize such politician, you will find people insult you by accusation not appreciation Islam and the rules that requires respecting these people.
    • Collective reasons
    Without a doubt, and as assessing any other phenomena, usually there is more than one factor that plays a role. I tried to bring the most common things that were mentioned in previous studies. For example, Bernard Lewis in his point of view about the main threat to democracy in the modern Middle East says, “The opponents of democracy in the Muslim world come from very different sources with sharply contrasting ideologies. An alliance of expediency exists between different groups with divergent interests …support by outside forces-governmental, commercial, ideological, and other in Europe, Asia and elsewhere” . Lewis adds to these elements in the beginning of his article that in the modern Middle East each foreigner came to the Arab region under the title of liberator such as Napoleon Bonaparte . At the end of his article, under the title “Fear Itself,” he talks about the influence of occupying Iraq and waves of democracy that usually come after wars such as World War I and World War II .
    Whether Bernard’s latter assessment is true or not. I will be evaluated below from what I think is the real and main obstacles of reform from my perspective as a researcher from this region.


    The Real Reasons of the Negative Stand of Arab Leaders Toward Reform
    I do believe that freedom phobia is the main reason as discussed earlier and the following are the completing of the list.
    • The high desire by Arab leaders to remain in power.
    It is everyone’s desire and everywhere but the Arab world is unique because this is happening by force and this is happening until now. Bernard Lewis give brief about the waves of military change after the defeat of Arab before Israel in 1948 war “revaluations came and went and revolutionary regimes removed and replaced one another ” The first military change was in Syria 1949, Egypt, 1952(change from monarchy to republican regime), Iraq 1958, (change from monarchy to republican regime), Jordan 1951 King of Jordan was killed, Libya 1970(change from monarchy to republican regime), 1961 Independence of Algeria, 1962(change from monarchy to republican regime) 1963 Independence of South Yemen.
    Below is additio0nal information about Arab leaders, how they took power and when :
    o Syrian president Hafiz Assad remained in power from early 1970s (military change) until his death in 2000, and his son followed him in power with out any election or competition.
    o King Hussein of Jordan took power after the assassination of his grandfather in 1951, and he remained in power more than 40 years until his death in 1999, and his son took power after him.
    o Egyptian President Mobarak took power after the assassination of former President Anwar Sadat in 1981.
    o The Libyan president has been in power since his military change in 1970.
    o The Bahraini king remained in power until his death in 1999, when his son took power.
    o The king of Morocco remained in power until his death in 1999, when his son took power.
    o Iraq’s Saddam remained in power more than 25 years until his defeat in 2003 and his arrest in 2004.
    o The prince of Qatar remained in power until his son kicked him out by force (military change) in the mid-1990s and his son has been in power since then.
    o The president of the United Arab Emirates remained in power since the establishment of the state in the early 1970s until his death in 2004 when his son took power.
    o The Palestinian president remained in power from the establishment of the PLO in the mid-1960s until his death in 2004.
    o The Saudi king took power after the death of his brother in the early 1980s, and he is in power until now although he is extremely disabled.
    o The Yemeni president has been in power since 1979 after the mysterious assassination of the former presidents.
    o The Tunisian president is in power since mid-1980s when he made military change (he was at that time head of intelligence).
    o The current Sultan of Oman has been in power since the mid-1970s when he kicked out his father by force.
    o The current president of Sudan (Omer Hassa ALBasheer) has been in power since 1989 (military change).
    In general we can say all Arab countries have longstanding leaders except Lebanon and Algeria. In Lebanon because it is the highest marginal democracy in the Arab world.
    • The desire and planning by Arab leaders to let their sons succeed them in taking power (after their death).
    Arab countries are two types; monarchy and republics. The monarchies are: Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Jordan and Morocco. The republics are Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Sudan, Comoros, Palestine, Somalia and Djibouti.
    It is understandable that in the monarchy, the move of power is within one family, but what is not understandable is that the same is happening in the republics also.
    This situation will be reviewed as follows:
    In Yemen, the older son of the president was elected in Parliament in 1997 by a 97 percent majority of voters , and in the same year, his father appointed him as a leader of the republican guards (the most important military unit). Later his father appointed him as commander for the Special Forces , and he is widely recognized as the next president. Yemeni television broadcast his speech which was given in Amman for his military graduation, although this is not the case with any similar cases .
    In Iraq, the two sons of Saddam were widely recognized as the second and third important figures after their father (not the vice president or prime minister-- because of that they were the second and the third wanted persons on the U.S. list). Qusai was the leader of republican guards and special guards. Odai was a member of parliament and held many other rankings and positions.
    In Syria, the older son of the former Syrian president, Basiel’s picture was in each taxi and governmental building although he did not do anything for the nation. When he died in the mid-1990s, his brother, who was studying ophthalmology in Britain, suddenly came to Syria and took some military courses. Syrian media introduced him in a systematic campaign as a fighter of corruption. When his father died in 2000, the Syrian constitution was amended to allow someone younger than 40 to be president (because Bashar was younger than 40). He became the president overnight with a simple amendment of the constitution.
    In Egypt the son of President Mobarak, Gamal, recently became an important figure, and he is now occupying the role of head of strategy in the national party (Mobarak’s party). He led the Egyptian delegation to the Daffos negotiation. Nowadays in Egypt, there is a strong movement to oppose inheritance of power as mentioned earlier.
    In Libya the four sons of President AlQadafi are occupying high positions, but the most powerful among them is Sief AlIslam who is leading AlQadafi charity organization, but in fact he has his sights set on being the next president. Moreover, some reports claimed that he was the one behind the deal with America and Britain
    • Fear from tribunal because of atrocities and corruption
    Since it was agreed that there is a lack of democracy in this region since a long time, this means among other things, there are many atrocities, abuse, corruption and victims of such regimes. Arab leaders are concerned that if a real democracy will be established, they will be sent before tribunals because of atrocities that they have committed during decades of their power or because of corruption they have practiced. For example, the U.S. magazine Forbes includes a rank for the 10 most richest among heads of states in the world; among the 10 declared, seven of them were Arabs. . In Forbes 2005 report of richest people, among rulers is the Saudi king (Fahed bin AbdulAziz) occupying the first rank on the list with a wealth of $22 billion .
    The Arab leaders as Arab nations will not forget the historic moment when the media showed Saddam being captured by U.S. troops from a hole in the ground, and picture of him while in court being accused of atrocities. (See the letter from Jim Hoagland in the Washington Post to Saddam titled “No Longer Your Iraq,” which comments on the news that says Sadam saw the election of the new Iraqi president
    Reforming costs a lot, and Arab leaders do not want to be degrading and face the same destiny as previous dictators such as Sadam and Marcos, the former president of the Philippines, who was accused of taking $657 million, and his case was subject to national and international procedures. (See the global report on corruption).
    This hypothesis will be clearer by looking into Transparency International’s reports of 2003 and 2004 (ranking of corruption). In 2003 there were 133 states, and in 2004 there were 145 states. Transparency uses the criteria of bribery of public officers from the point of view of businessmen and academic people. Arab countries occupied the positions mentioned in the table below:
    Country Status in 2003 Status in 2004
    Oman 26 29
    Bahrain 27 34
    Qatar 32 38
    Kuwait 35 44
    United Arab Emirates 37 29
    Tunisia 39 39
    Jordan 43 37
    Saudi Arabia 46 71
    Mauritania 48
    Syria 66
    Morocco & Egypt 70 77
    Lebanon 78 79
    Palestine 78 108
    Algeria 88 79
    Yemen 88 112
    Iraq 113 129
    Libya 118 108
    Sudan 128

    The following can be discerned from the table:
    • 10 countries out of 17 instead of moving forward, they moved backward, their record becoming even poorer.
    • The average range of Arab country’s rank in 2003 was 45, and in 2004 this average rank dropped to 71, which means the Arab countries fell 26 levels.
    • -More over this rank is weak by taking in consideration the fact that Arab countries were the first nations to gain independence after World War II , which means these countries suppose have built instrument to fight corruption.
    • Also this rank is considered weak by taking in account the fact that the countries that occupied good positions are oil countries and has less population the sum of population of these countries that get 40s is about 15 million person out of 300 million person.
    • Comparing to the rest of the World Arab region occupied before the last (before Africa)
    How to Cope with Obstacles? (Effecting reform)
    To answer this, it is necessary to know whether there are alternatives. What are they? And what are the pros and cons of each solution?
    For example, is amending the charter of the League of Arab States the way to reform? Or is federalism a solution? Or a confederacy? Or is making an ideal constitution to be a guide for these countries the solution? Should the countries wait for foreign forces to impose reform by force as was done in Iraq and Afghanistan? Or should they make arrangements for each country according to its circumstances and environment?
    Concerning the Arab League of States, I think it will be a step on the road to reform, but as discussed earlier, Arab countries are not states of law yet. They are moving toward that. Moreover, Arab leaders will not be willing to surrender or restrict their authorities in favor of the League. So far, decisions required agreement. If a country does not agree on a certain decision, it is not obliged to abide by the decision. . Particularly, there are a huge amount of accords among Arab states that cover everything from defense to employment, but many of them are out of order (how Arab look to the rule of law as discussed earlier) Also in a survey made by human development report of 2004 for Arab region (UNDP), they found that very high majority of Arab are not satisfy about the level of cooperation among Arab states.
    What about the recommendation of the Arab human development report of 2004? They recommended ten suggestions for democracy and good governance (restricts the authority by law, mentioning rights in the constitutions, establishing multi party system, make a link between authority and responsibility, mentioning the independence of judicial power in constitutions, including the right of compensation). So, they didn’t provide some thing new!! I have two points to comments:
    -First, the team didn’t tell us how to achieve these goals
    -Second we have some Arab countries that their constitutions include such principles , but human rights in these countries are bad.
    So I think the report diagnosis the problem and the treatment is already know (before diagnosis) and what remain now is how achieve this?

    Furthermore, is it feasible to make certain arrangements for monarchial countries and make different arrangements for republics?
    A conference was held in Doha, Qatar about democracy and reform in Arab countries in 2004. A hundred distinguished and highly-educated participants from different parts of the Arab world, including immigrants in the West, discussed reform and they reached a conclusion concerning the monarchies in the Arab world. They suggested making these regime constitutional royalties by making a separation between the inheritance of royalty and the executive authority.
    The current examples of constitutional royalties are not satisfactory. For example, Jordan, Morocco, Bahrain, Kuwait and maybe Qatar are still in a transitional period. There is marginal freedom of speech, and although they have freedom to establish parties (except Kuwait and Qatar), all of these countries still suffer from the following:
    The power is concentrated in the executive branch and certainly in the hand of the prince or king. the king is the head of executive authority and at the same time is influencing part of the legislative authority . There is no legal or political responsibility for the king or the prince (by law)“The king is protected from any kind of legal or political responsibility” . They are dealing with democracy as a gift from the prince as he can withdraw it any time .
    The other monarchy that is still not moving toward transitional democracy is Saudi Arabia. An election for local council was held in 2004 and women were not allowed to vote. In both Oman and the U.A.E. there are local councils.
    Recommendations (solution)
    It seems we are in a historical moment whether we will be like the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe , which does not seem to be the case because of the extreme difference between the structures. Steve Cook, in his article in “Foreign Affairs,” has a negative opinion about Arab NGOs and their ability to make changes . Arab leaders will absorb the internal anger and external pressure by taking superficial steps, and in the same time, working hard to threaten the West about the consequences of reform (Islamic movement threat). This unfortunately seems to be the case. Adel Darwish, citing on behalf of a friend of the current Syrian President Bashar AlAssad, says that “The regime will find it hard to distract America by offering small steps and a few cessions here and there ”. Also the recent Egyptian process of electing president it seems will lead to restrict the competition process Another option is for the Arab people to continue the movement (such as Intifadah of Independence in Lebanon), until they get complete freedom, which is likely a ways away. In my opinion another difference between Arab region and the rest of the world (especially East Europe and Latin America) is that Arab mentality, Arab leaders (as Arab nation) have high sensitivity and wide interpretation for dignity. Bremakof the representative of the former Soviet Union leader Gorpatchof in his book, Bremakof days in Gulf crisis says Sadam told him if you will give me two choices, one is to avoid American attack by standing on my knees or getting attacked while I am raising my head, I would select to raise my head . Sadam was not strange example, it is very common. The Iraqi transitional president (Ghazi Alyawer) when election was held in Iraq in 2005 and his party lost election, he was still offered to be the head of parliament, he refused to do so. It is one of the very sad events in person’s life in Yemen or Jordan when person lost parliament election, some people avoid staying with people, and others travel. This is about getting the power, but when you have power and you lose it, it is some thing close to be a shame. Arab leaders are ready to fight until last moment to avoid being kicked out. From the independence after World War II just one example of Arab leaders who left precedence by his will, Abdulrahaman Soar Aldhahab, who was President of Sudan in Mid 1980s. The importance of this point, I will mention the most important related event in Arab, Islamic history that make the idea clear about how Arabs, and Muslims look to being governors. The events is that when the third governor after the prophet (Othman bin Affan) in his late period (he was over 80s) and there is agreement among historians that his relatives up used him to get personal interest and this harmed many people especially Egyptians, so revolutionists came from Egypt to complain the first time then in the second time they asked him to resign, he refused and he said “ I will not take off a clothes that Allah dressed on me” so the revolutionists killed him And since this moment the one of the big difference between Shiat and Sunah is that Sunah considering this governor is the third best person after the prophet and Shiat considered him as a corrupt person. And since Sunah is majority in Arab world (Shiat does exist in Iraq, Bahrain, part of Lebanon, and part of Yemen, and a very small other parts), this make such statement of this governor a holy statement( right to be in power, right to resist reform, even right not to punish governor’s relatives who commit atrocities).
    Based on that the question is, do we have a compromise that takes in consideration the importance and need for immediate reform and at the same time, takes into account the concerns of rulers that were mentioned earlier? It seems the options are contradictory: the right of the people verses the right of a family or a person. One of them will win and the other will lose. According to that, the rulers will work hard to prevent reform, so he can continue to rule until a historic moment occurs.
    In my opinion, there is some compromise necessary, which is that both parties will give something and take something in return.
    Give Take
    Arab leaders -Full freedom
    -Full power -Amnesty from the past
    -Permanent positions as leaders in spirit, whatever the name will be (the same role as the Queen in Britain, or president in India, but the difference is his son will follow him as president)
    Arab Nations -What rulers need as mentioned above freedom and power

    At historic times, difficult decisions need to be made. It is not the ideal solution, but waiting for the ideal solution may take a long time, and it might not come at all. Time is of the essence, and such a situation (internal movement and external influence) might not repeat itself.
    How we can make that?

    This means gathering all players including opponent out side each country to held a dialogue and draft a permanent constitution that MUST be offered for nations for referendum and this constitution must include;
    -Establishing of three powers
    -Separation of powers
    -Principles of freedom
    -Granting these principles will be implemented.
    - Giving the current rulers the spiritual leadership
    - Including the Amnesty article
    - Making transitional system
    Now I will explain some details about these principles

    - Giving the current rulers the spiritual leadership what ever the name will be (president, prince, king, Sultan) and this spiritual leadership means:
    -Their authority is just limited and restricted for the following items
    1-Inviating the winner of the election (the side that will held majority comparing to others) to establish the government.
    2-Receiving and goodbye the foreigner ambassadors.
    3- Opening new parliament sessions.
    To make these clear the constitution should confirm the lack of the authority of (him) to lead military or police or civil services and it should be clear that his request is not obligatory.
    4-Giving him yearly budget.
    5-giving him the chance to select who should follow him in case of death

    -Including the Amnesty close
    Amnesty will be for ALL PEOPLE who ruled in the past or who is ruling now, high level rulers, high ranking officials, so all the societies will get benefit from such amnesty, not one person or family or even regime (there are examples in Arab world about people who there is well ground reason to doubt they commit atrocities and now they are opponent, such as; the socialist party in Yemen who were ruling South Yemen, also Marshal Mecial Awen of Lebanon who was kicked out in 1990 and who was wanted by lebanoies government and he retuned in May 2005 in Sudan Alsadeq Almahdy who he was the ruler before the military change in 1989 and now he is an opponent. The brother of Hafiez Alssad (Refit) who is planning to return to Syria from his refuge to ask for reform from inside and Syrian government threaten to trail him because of old records . Also Baath party in Iraq for the time being. Also Hameed Aldeen family who were ruling North Yemen, Also the former member of Abdulkareem Kassim, the communist party that ruled Iraq during 1950s and early 1960s, also the former monarchy regime in Libya, the former regime in Syria during Hosni Alzaeem that ruled Syria in 1940s). Not only current regimes under threat because of their past record but also these groups are under threat because of their own bad past records and this limit their opposition activities. So All players (current rulers, formers, their regimes’ members etc) will get benefit. (The members of Albatth party were millions; the people who participate in Sadam’s atrocities were most Iraqi officials (intelligence, military intelligence, special guards, republic guards, normal military forces, special one etc) which means most Iraqis involved in crimes against each other).
    -Amnesty will be an item on process that lead to establishing new system, such as constitutional referendum that includes Amnesty close. This will give the Amnesty national agreement, so it will have huge legitimacy. Yes there is a role that certain atrocities are not subject to amnesty and pre......ion and/ or subject to international law (such as article IV of Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity that states in its article IV “ The States Parties to the present Convention undertake to adopt, in accordance with their respective constitutional processes, any legislative or other measures necessary to ensure that statutory or other limitations shall not apply to the prosecution and punishment of the crimes referred to in articles I and II of this Convention and that, where they exist, such limitations shall be abolished”
    If we will have two choices weather to prosecute a former Iraqi officer who killed 500 persons but this will coast killing 1000 innocent persons, or pardon him and saving 1000 innocent person, the wisdom say we have not lose more innocent people.
    So Amnesty should include the following:
    -Amnesty should include All people and with out restrictions in time
    - Amnesty should take place through referendum
    -provided that Governor should return money they stolen from nation.
    - International super powers should recognize such amnesty
    since there is an international interest in reform in this region as mentioned earlier , so giving the legitimacy is important from these powers such as (US and EU especially these countries are that may people who commit crimes (with the meaning of international law) will be prosecuted in it .) because simply this the way to gain peace in this region and to strengthen stability in the world and this recognition may take a form of declaration, agreement, etc.
    -And much important this may include taking approval from certain international body by the influence of interesting players and Arab countries (22) what ever the form of approval will be even if this will coast approving such a process from Security council under his mandate according to chapter 7 (As discussed that stability of this region is effecting the peace in the world ). Because may such a solution (getting SC approval) is the only one because of the basic rule that states that amnesties doesn’t limits international courts from practicing its jurisdictions . Because security council stem its jurisdiction from UN charter that considered the basic law of the international law and this mandate under chapter 7 gives the SC power to issue decisions obligatory decisions for the all world since it has effect in international peace and security. Finally if this is will not work for reason or another so this is the maximum we can offer it, I mean amnesty in the local dimension and in certain countries that will be concern to encourage reform in the Arab world and the ability for trial it will be a possibility.
    -Declaration of apology,
    All concern parties should be encouraged to declare their responsibilities and their apology.
    -Compensation
    Since atrocities were committed by people who were in power and it was committed under the title national security, liberating Palestine etc, States should pay the compensation . The compensation may take different styles such as:
    1- Money payment
    2- reappointing them in certain positions if they were replaced lawfully
    3- Giving them priorities in appointing(employment), if they were excluded such as some minorities like Kurd in Iraq (the current Iraqi president is Kurd kind of giving a message you are not minority excluded any more by occupying this position)
    4- Giving their regions priority in developments projects if they were excluded due to their race, religion, origin, etc. such as health services, dams, schools, roads loans for housing etc.
    5- Giving them Priority in high education or other issues.
    - Making transitional close that will insure the following
    - All players to participate in the transforming process
    - Transparency that will let all people follow effect the process.
    - To insure that current rulers will hand over power (we don’t want them to keep power and to legitimatize this up using of power).














    Appendix
    Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations by US department of the states
    1. Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)
    2. Abu Sayyaf Group
    3. Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade
    4. Ansar al-Islam
    5. Armed Islamic Group (GIA)
    6. Asbat al-Ansar
    7. Aum Shinrikyo
    8. Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
    9. Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA)
    10. Continuity Irish Republican Army
    11. Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group)
    12. HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
    13. Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)
    14. Hizballah (Party of God)
    15. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
    16. Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed)
    17. Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI)
    18. al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad)
    19. Kahane Chai (Kach)
    20. Kongra-Gel (KGK, formerly Kurdistan Workers' Party, PKK, KADEK)
    21. Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous)
    22. Lashkar i Jhangvi
    23. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
    24. Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG)
    25. Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK)
    26. National Liberation Army (ELN)
    27. Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
    28. Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
    29. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLF)
    30. PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC)
    31. al-Qa’ida
    32. Real IRA
    33. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
    34. Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA)
    35. Revolutionary Organization 17 November
    36. Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)
    37. Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC)
    38. Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL)
    39. Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (QJBR) (al-Qaida in Iraq) (formerly Jama'at al-Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, JTJ, al-Zarqawi Network)
    40. United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)






    Terrorist Exclusion List Designees (alphabetical listing)
    • Afghan Support Committee (a.k.a. Ahya ul Turas; a.k.a. Jamiat Ayat-ur-Rhas al Islamia; a.k.a. Jamiat Ihya ul Turath al Islamia; a.k.a. Lajnat el Masa Eidatul Afghania)
    • Al Taqwa Trade, Property and Industry Company Ltd. (f.k.a. Al Taqwa Trade, Property and Industry; f.k.a. Al Taqwa Trade, Property and Industry Establishment; f.k.a. Himmat Establishment; a.k.a. Waldenberg, AG)
    • Al-Hamati Sweets Bakeries
    • Al-Ittihad al-Islami (AIAI)
    • Al-Manar
    • Al-Ma’unah
    • Al-Nur Honey Center
    • Al-Rashid Trust
    • Al-Shifa Honey Press for Industry and Commerce
    • Al-Wafa al-Igatha al-Islamia (a.k.a. Wafa Humanitarian Organization; a.k.a. Al Wafa; a.k.a. Al Wafa Organization)
    • Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB)
    • Anarchist Faction for Overthrow
    • Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) (a.k.a. Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces (EX-FAR))
    • Asbat al-Ansar
    • Babbar Khalsa International
    • Bank Al Taqwa Ltd. (a.k.a. Al Taqwa Bank; a.k.a. Bank Al Taqwa)
    • Black Star
    • Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (a.k.a. CPN(M); a.k.a. the United Revolutionary People’s Council, a.k.a. the People’s Liberation Army of Nepal)
    • Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) (a.k.a. Continuity Army Council)
    • Darkazanli Company
    • Dhamat Houmet Daawa Salafia (a.k.a. Group Protectors of Salafist Preaching; a.k.a. Houmat Ed Daawa Es Salifiya; a.k.a. Katibat El Ahoual; a.k.a. Protectors of the Salafist Predication; a.k.a. El-Ahoual Battalion; a.k.a. Katibat El Ahouel; a.k.a. Houmate Ed-Daawa Es-Salafia; a.k.a. the Horror Squadron; a.k.a. Djamaat Houmat Eddawa Essalafia; a.k.a. Djamaatt Houmat Ed Daawa Es Salafiya; a.k.a. Salafist Call Protectors; a.k.a. Djamaat Houmat Ed Daawa Es Salafiya; a.k.a. Houmate el Da’awaa es-Salafiyya; a.k.a. Protectors of the Salafist Call; a.k.a. Houmat ed-Daaoua es-Salafia; a.k.a. Group of Supporters of the Salafiste Trend; a.k.a. Group of Supporters of the Salafist Trend)
    • Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (a.k.a. Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party; a.k.a. ETIM; a.k.a. ETIP)
    • First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) (a.k.a. Grupo de Resistencia Anti-Fascista Premero De Octubre)
    • Harakat ul Jihad i Islami (HUJI)
    • International Sikh Youth Federation
    • Islamic Army of Aden
    • Islamic Renewal and Reform Organization
    • Jamiat al-Ta’awun al-Islamiyya
    • Jamiat ul-Mujahideen (JUM)
    • Japanese Red Army (JRA)
    • Jaysh-e-Mohammed
    • Jayshullah
    • Jerusalem Warriors
    • Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LET) (a.k.a. Army of the Righteous)
    • Libyan Islamic Fighting Group
    • Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)
    • Makhtab al-Khidmat
    • Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (a.k.a. GICM; a.k.a. Groupe Islamique Combattant Marocain)
    • Nada Management Organization (f.k.a. Al Taqwa Management Organization SA)
    • New People’s Army (NPA)
    • Orange Volunteers (OV)
    • People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD)
    • Red Brigades-Combatant Communist Party (BR-PCC)
    • Red Hand Defenders (RHD)
    • Revival of Islamic Heritage Society (Pakistan and Afghanistan offices -- Kuwait office not designated) (a.k.a. Jamia Ihya ul Turath; a.k.a. Jamiat Ihia Al- Turath Al-Islamiya; a.k.a. Revival of Islamic Society Heritage on the African Continent)
    • Revolutionary Proletarian Nucleus
    • Revolutionary United Front (RUF)
    • Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC)
    • The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)
    • The Islamic International Brigade (a.k.a. International Battalion, a.k.a. Islamic Peacekeeping International Brigade, a.k.a. Peacekeeping Battalion, a.k.a. The International Brigade, a.k.a. The Islamic Peacekeeping Army, a.k.a. The Islamic Peacekeeping Brigade)
    • The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
    • The Pentagon Gang
    • The Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Battalion of Chechen Martyrs (a.k.a. Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Battalion, a.k.a. Riyadh-as-Saliheen, a.k.a. the Sabotage and Military Surveillance Group of the Riyadh al-Salihin Martyrs, a.k.a. Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Battalion of Shahids (Martyrs))
    • The Special Purpose Islamic Regiment (a.k.a. the Islamic Special Purpose Regiment, a.k.a. the al-Jihad-Fisi-Sabililah Special Islamic Regiment, a.k.a. Islamic Regiment of Special Meaning)
    • Tunisian Combat Group (a.k.a. GCT, a.k.a. Groupe Combattant Tunisien, a.k.a. Jama’a Combattante Tunisien, a.k.a. JCT; a.k.a. Tunisian Combatant Group)
    • Turkish Hizballah
    • Ulster Defense Association (a.k.a. Ulster Freedom Fighters)
    • Ummah Tameer E-Nau (UTN) (a.k.a. Foundation for Construction; a.k.a. Nation Building; a.k.a. Reconstruction Foundation; a.k.a. Reconstruction of the Islamic Community; a.k.a. Reconstruction of the Muslim Ummah; a.k.a. Ummah Tameer I-Nau; a.k.a. Ummah Tameer E-Nau; a.k.a. Ummah Tameer-I-Pau)
    • Youssef M. Nada & Co. Gesellschaft M.B.H.






    List of persons, groups and entities referred to in Article 1(1) European Union
    1. PERSONS
    1. ABOU, Rabah Naami (a.k.a. Naami Hamza; a.k.a. Mihoubi Faycal; a.k.a. Fellah Ahmed; a.k.a. Dafri Rèmi Lahdi) born 1.2.1966 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    2. ABOUD, Maisi (a.k.a. The Swiss Abderrahmane) born 17.10.1964 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    3. *ALBERDI URANGA, Itziar (E.T.A. Activist) born 7.10.1963 in Durango (Biscay), identity card No 78.865.693
    4. *ALBISU IRIARTE, Miguel (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Gestoras Pro-amnistía) born 7.6.1961 in San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.954.596
    5. AL-MUGHASSIL, Ahmad Ibrahim (a.k.a. ABU OMRAN; a.k.a. AL-MUGHASSIL, Ahmed Ibrahim) born 26.6.1967 in Qatif-Bab al Shamal, Saudi Arabia; citizen Saudi Arabia
    6. AL-NASSER, Abdelkarim Hussein Mohamed, born in Al Ihsa, Saudi Arabia; citizen Saudi Arabia
    7. AL YACOUB, Ibrahim Salih Mohammed, born 16.10.1966 in Tarut, Saudi Arabia; citizen Saudi Arabia
    8. *APAOLAZA SANCHO, Iván (E.T.A. Activist; Member of K.Madrid) born 10.11.1971 in Beasain (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 44.129.178
    9. ARIOUA, Azzedine born 20.11.1960 in Costantine (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    10. ARIOUA, Kamel (a.k.a. Lamine Kamel) born 18.8.1969 in Costantine (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    11. ASLI, Mohamed (a.k.a. Dahmane Mohamed) born 13.5.1975 in Ain Taya (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    12. ASLI, Rabah born 13.5.1975 in Ain Taya (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    13. *ARZALLUS TAPIA, Eusebio (E.T.A. Activist) born 8.11.1957 in Regil (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.927.207
    14. ATWA, Ali (a.k.a. BOUSLIM, Ammar Mansour; a.k.a. SALIM, Hassan Rostom), Lebanon, born 1960 in Lebanon; citizen Lebanon
    15. *BERASATEGUI ESCUDERO, Ismael (E.T.A. Activist; Member of K. Behorburu) born 15.6.1969 in Eibar (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.379.555
    16. DARIB, Noureddine (a.k.a. Carreto; a.k.a. Zitoun Mourad) born 1.2.1972 in Algeria (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    17. DJABALI, Abderrahmane (a.k.a. Touil) born 1.6.1970 in Algeria (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    18. *ECHEBERRIA SIMARRO, Leire (E.T.A. Activist) born 20.12.1977 in Basauri (Bizcay), identity card No 45.625.646
    19. *ECHEGARAY ACHIRICA, Alfonso (E.T.A. Activist) born 10.1.1958 in Plencia (Bizcay), identity card No 16.027.051
    20. *ELCORO AYASTUY, Paulo (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Jarrai/Haika/Segi) born 22.10.1973 in Vergara (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.394.062
    21. EL-HOORIE, Ali Saed Bin Ali (a.k.a. AL-HOURI, Ali Saed Bin Ali; a.k.a EL-HOURI, Ali Saed Bin Ali) born 10.7.1965 alt. 11.7.1965 in El Dibabiya, Saudi Arabia; citizen Saudi Arabia
    22. FAHAS, Sofiane Yacine born 10.9.1971 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    23. *FIGAL ARRANZ, Antonio Agustín (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Kas/Ekin) born 2.12.1972 in Baracaldo (Biscay), identity card No 20.172.692
    24. *GOGEASCOECHEA ARRONATEGUI, Eneko (E.T.A. Activist), born 29.4.1967 in Guernica (Biscay), identity card No 44.556.097
    25. *GOIRICELAYA GONZALEZ, Cristina (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Herri Batasuna/E.H/Batasuna), born 23.12.1967 in Vergara (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 16.282.556
    26. *IPARRAGUIRRE GUENECHEA, Ma Soledad (E.T.A. Activist) born 25.4.1961 in Escoriaza (Navarra), identity card No 16.255.819
    27. *IZTUETA BARANDICA, Enrique (E.T.A. Activist) born 30.7.1955 in Santurce (Biscay), identity card No 14.929.950
    28. IZZ-AL-DIN, Hasan (a.k.a GARBAYA, AHMED; a.k.a. SA-ID; a.k.a. SALWWAN, Samir), Lebanon, born 1963 in Lebanon, citizen Lebanon
    29. LASSASSI, Saber (a.k.a. Mimiche) born 30.11.1970 in Constantine (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    30. MOHAMMED, Khalid Shaikh (a.k.a. ALI, Salem; a.k.a. BIN KHALID, Fahd Bin Adballah; a.k.a. HENIN, Ashraf Refaat Nabith; a.k.a. WADOOD, Khalid Adbul) born 14.4.1965 alt. 1.3.1964 in Pakistan, passport No 488555
    31. MOKTARI, Fateh (a.k.a. Ferdi Omar) born 26.12.1974 in Hussein Dey (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    32. *MORCILLO TORRES, Gracia (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Kas/Ekin) born 15.3.1967 in San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 72.439.052
    33. MUGHNIYAH, Imad Fa'iz (a.k.a. MUGHNIYAH, Imad Fayiz), Senior Intelligence Officer of HIZBALLAH, born 7.12.1962 in Tayr Dibba, Lebanon, passport No 432298 (Lebanon)
    34. *MUÑOA ORDOZGOITI, Aloña (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Kas/Ekin) born 6.7.1976 in Segura (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 35.771.259
    35. *NARVÁEZ GOÑI, Juan Jesús (E.T.A. Activist) born 23.2.1961 in Pamplona (Navarra), identity card No 15.841.101
    36. NOUARA, Farid born 25.11.1973 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    37. *ORBE SEVILLANO, Zigor (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Jarrai/Haika/Segi) born 22.9.1975 in Basauri (Biscay), identity card No 45.622.851
    38. *OTEGUI UNANUE, Mikel (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Jarrai/Haika/Segi) born 8.10.1972 in Itsasondo (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 44.132.976
    39. *PALACIOS ALDAY, Gorka (E.T.A. Activist; Member of K.Madrid), born 17.10.1974 in Baracaldo (Biscay), identity card No 30.654.356
    40. *PEREZ ARAMBURU, Jon Iñaki (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Jarrai/Haika/Segi) born 18.9.1964 in San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.976.521
    41. *QUINTANA ZORROZUA, Asier (E.T.A. Activist; Member of K.Madrid), born 27.2.1968 in Bilbao (Biscay), identity card No 30.609.430
    42. RESSOUS, Hoari (a.k.a. Hallasa Farid) born 11.9.1968 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    43. *RUBENACH ROIG, Juan Luis (E.T.A. Activist; Member of K.Madrid), born 18.9.1964 in Bilbao (Biscay), identity card No 18.197.545
    44. *SAEZ DE EGUILAZ MURGUIONDO, Carlos (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Kas/Ekin) born 9.12.1963 in San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.962.687
    45. SEDKAOUI, Noureddine (a.k.a. Nounou) born 23.6.1963 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    46. SELMANI, Abdelghani (a.k.a. Gano) born 14.6.1974 in Algiers (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    47. SENOUCI, Sofiane born 15.4.1971 in Hussein Dey (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    48. SISON, Jose Maria (a.k.a. Armando Liwanag, a.k.a. Joma, in charge of NPA) born 8.2.1939 in Cabugao, Philippines
    49. TINGUALI, Mohammed (a.k.a. Mouh di Kouba) born 21.4.1964 in Blida (Algeria) (Member of al-Takfir and al-Hijra)
    50. *URANGA ARTOLA, Kemen (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Herri Batasuna/E.H/Batasuna) born 25.5.1969 in Ondarroa (Biscay), identity card No 30.627.290
    51. * VALLEJO FRANCO, Iñigo (E.T.A. Activist) born 21.5.1976 in Bilbao (Biscay), identity card No 29.036.694
    52. *VILA MICHELENA, Fermín (E.T.A. Activist; Member of Kas/Ekin) born 12.3.1970 in Irún (Guipúzcoa), identity card No 15.254.214
    2. GROUPS AND ENTITIES
    1. Abu Nidal Organisation (ANO), (a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organisation of Socialist Muslims)
    2. Al-Aqsa Martyr's Brigade
    3. Al-Takfir and Al-Hijra
    4. Aum Shinrikyo (a.k.a. AUM, a.k.a. Aum Supreme Truth, a.k.a. Aleph)
    5. Babbar Khalsa
    6. *Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)
    7. *Euskadi Ta Askatasuna/Tierra Vasca y Libertad/Basque Fatherland and Liberty (E.T.A.) (The following organisations are part of the terrorist group E.T.A.: K.a.s., Xaki, Ekin, Jarrai-Haika-Segi, Gestoras pro-amnistía, Askatasuna, Batasuna (a.k.a. Herri Batasuna, a.k.a. Euskal Herritarrok))
    8. Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group), (a.k.a. Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, IG)
    9. *Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre/Antifascist Resistance Groups First of October (G.R.A.P.O.)
    10. Hamas-Izz al-Din al-Qassem (terrorist wing of Hamas)
    11. Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development
    12. International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)
    13. Kahane Chai (Kach)
    14. Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)
    15. Lashkar e Tayyaba (LET)/Pashan-e-Ahle Hadis
    16. *Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)
    17. Mujahedin-e Khalq Organisation (MEK or MKO) (minus the "National Council of Resistance of Iran" (NCRI)) (a.k.a. The National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA, the militant wing of the MEK), the People's Mujahidin of Iran (PMOI), Muslim Iranian Student's Society)
    18. New Peoples Army (NPA), Philippines, linked to Sison Jose Maria C. (a.k.a. Armando Liwanag, a.k.a. Joma, in charge of NPA)
    19. *Orange Volunteers (OV)
    20. Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
    21. Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
    22. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
    23. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, (a.k.a. PFLP-General Command, a.k.a. PFLP-GC)
    24. *Real IRA
    25. *Red Hand Defenders (RHD)
    26. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
    27. *Revolutionary Nuclei/Epanastatiki Pirines
    28. *Revolutionary Organisation 17 November/Dekati Evdomi Noemvri
    29. Revolutionary People's Liberation Army/Front/Party (DHKP/C), (a.k.a. Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left), Dev Sol)
    30. *Revolutionary Popular Struggle/Epanastatikos Laikos Agonas (ELA)
    31. Shining Path (SL) (Sendero Luminoso)
    32. Stichting Al Aqsa (a.k.a. Stichting Al Aqsa Nederland, a.k.a. Al Aqsa Nederland)
    33. *Ulster Defence Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters (UDA/UFF)
    34. United Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC) (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia)
    (1) Persons marked with an * shall be the subject of Article 4 only.










    Biography


    First (hard copies) books, magazines and unpublished papers: according to order of appearance

    -Steven A. Cook, draft report, independent task force on U.S Foreign policy toward reform in the Arab world sponsored by CFR, (2005).
    - Bernard Lewis, The Middle East, brief of history of the last 2000 years, Scribner,(1995).
    - Fatma Mernissi, Islam and democracy, fear of the modern world, translated by Mary, Jo Lakeeland, Basic books (2002).
    - Bernard Lewis, Freedom and justice in the modern Middle East, p36-51, Foreign Affaires, #84, May June (2005).
    - Fouad Ajama, the autumn of the autocrats, p20-35, Foreign Affaires,#84, May June (2005).
    - Neil Macfarquhar, Egyption Campaigns in limbo, awaiting election rules, Washington Post, Sunday, April 24, 2005 p8YT
    -Arab human development report , Watnya, Amman (2005).
    - Rashied Khalied, resurrecting empire, Beacon (2005).
    - Terry Mcdermott, Perfect Soldiers, p xxi, Harper. Collins. (2005)
    - Report of 9/11 commission page 376, Barnes and Nobel books, (2004).
    - Daniel Byman, how to fight terrorism, p 124-n129, National interest magazine, #79 spring, 2005
    - Adel Dariwsh, (The winds of change), the Middle East magazine, issue 335, p18, April 2005).
    - Bernard Lewis, Islam and the West, Oxford (1993),
    - Adel Al-Dhahab about (why Yemenis go to fight in Afghanistan) this lecture was given to Allen and Overy attorneys team that volunteering to defend Yemeni that detained in Guantanamo prison in December 2004.
    - Marina Ottaway and Thomas Carothers Middle East democracy, p22-28, Foreign policy,# 145Dec 2004.
    - Walter Laquer, not end war, war on terrorism in 21 century. Continuum. NY. London, 2003
    - Nikolas K. Gvosdev & Paul J. Saunders, On liberty, The national interest, p 5-7 # 79, spring 2005.
    - Saad Eddin Ibrahim, Egypt’s torture present, Foreign Policy magazine, # 148, May, June 2005 p 78-80
    -Mohammed Yosef ALwan, group of lectures (unpublished) in human rights 1993.
    - Reuel Gerecht, don’t fear shiiates, the American enterprise, p 40- 43, April-May (2005).
    -Michael A Ledeen, the advance freedom, US foreign policy and democratic revolution at Harvard international review, xxvII, no1 p14-19, 2005.
    - Mohamed Alshokani, Niel Alwatar, voulm 3,p357. Dar aleketab Alarabi (2000).
    - Galal Aldeen Alseuti, Taryich Al kholafa, which mean history of governor, ALtwfeeq (1985)
    - Bernard Lewis, Islam and the West, Oxford (1993) , chapter of history of Shiat in history of Islam p155-165
    - AbdulAh ALHajeri, Yemeni proverb, Aljeel Aljadeed, 1997.
    - Abdulmaliek Altyeeb, history talks, p 78, Aljeel Aljadeed (1991)
    -, Ann Elizabeth Mayer, 1994 University of Michigan Law School Michigan Journal of International Law Winter, 1994, 15 Mich. J. Int'l L. 307ARTICLE: UNIVERSAL VERSUS ISLAMIC HUMAN RIGHTS: A CLASH OF CULTURES OR A CLASH WITH A CONSTRUCT?
    - Adel Aldhahab, unpublished paper, Principles of the dialogue in the statements of Prophet Mohammed. Course of Human rights in transitional democracy at Northwestern University, December 16, 2004).
    - members of Yemeni Parliament, publisher is Yemeni parliament, 1997
    -Steve Cook foreign affairs magazine issue of February/ March 2005. p91
    -- Bremakof days in Gulf crisis.
    - Adel Aldhahab, evaluating the independence of judicial power in Yemen, unpublished report (2004)

    Second websites: according to order of appearance

    -http://www.arableagueonline.org (Arab league of states)
    - http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook (CIA fact book)
    -www.undp.org (UNDP)
    - http://www.aljazeera.net (Aljazeera)
    -http://hdr.undp.org/reports/view_reports.cfm (human development report)
    - http://www.washingtonpost.com (Washington post)
    - http://europa.eu (European Union)
    - http://www.state.gov (department of the States)
    - http://www.amnesty.org (Amnesty international)
    - http://www.aohronline.com (Arab Organization for Human Rights)
    - http://www.unhchr.ch (United nations commission office for human rights)
    - http://www.lexis.com (lexis)
    - http://www.rsf.org (reporters with out borders)
    - http://www.treas.gov (department of treasury)
    - http://www.alwahdawi.net (ALwahdawi, Yemeni agency news)
    - http://hrw.org (HRW)
    - http://www.al-islah.net (Islah party)
    - http://www.betar.co.uk
    - http://news.bbc.co.uk (BBC)
    - http://www.globalcorruptionreport.org (global corruption)
    - http://www.transparency.org (transparency)













    Acknowledgment
     My late parents who instilled in me the love of learning and inspired me to work for advancing human rights around the world.
     The Fulbright Program, which gave me the invaluable opportunity to study the LLM law in the United States.
     Zeeba Anar Wala for linguistic correction
     Hatem Elhady for being a supporter and provider of valuable resources
     

مشاركة هذه الصفحة