Index of Economic Freedom 2004 -yemenتقرير دولي عن اليمن

الكاتب : jawvi   المشاهدات : 544   الردود : 2    ‏2005-08-30
      مشاركة رقم : 1    ‏2005-08-30
  1. jawvi

    jawvi قلم ذهبي

    التسجيل :
    ‏2005-06-05
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    http://cf.heritage.org/index2004test/country2.cfm?id=Yemen

    Index of Economic Freedom 2004 - Countries


    Yemen, a poor country with few resources, is located on the Red Sea coast of the Arabian Peninsula. In 1990, North and South Yemen united after two decades of political and civil turmoil. A southern secessionist movement that erupted again in 1994 was quickly subdued, but not before it undermined the limited progress that had been made toward economic liberalization. Yemen remains a cauldron of political intrigue with an economy that remains hamstrung by rampant unemployment, frequent water shortages, high population growth rates, and an often-corrupt bureaucracy that has permeated all levels of the government, including the judiciary. President Ali Abdallah Saleh, who led Northern Yemen before the merger, faces strong opposition from southern Yemeni political parties, autonomous tribes, and Islamic radicals who oppose the government’s economic reform program and seek to obstruct private-sector initiatives. Future economic development will be closely tied to the level of the government’s adherence to the International Monetary Fund’s structural adjustment program. Although the administration has adopted marginal measures to reduce state intervention in commercial activities and government spending, more needs to be done, particularly in the areas of economic diversification, civil service reform, and attracting foreign investment. However, because recurring violence and an uncertain security environment have the potential to undermine foreign investor confidence in the economy, the government is not likely to retreat from its economic reform efforts as this would jeopardize its fragile relationship with international donors. Yemen’s fiscal burden of government score is 0.3 point better this year. As a result, its overall score is 0.03 point better this year.
    TRADE POLICY
    Score: 3.0
    Based on data from the Yemeni central bank, Yemen’s average tariff rate in 2000 was 7.4 percent (based on import duties as a percent of total imports). According to the U.S. Department of State, “The government prohibits importation of seven items: pork and pork products, coffee, alcohol, narcotics, some types of fresh fruits and vegetables during their local production season…and rhinoceros horns.” The Economist Intelligence Unit reports that “excessively complex customs procedures” act as a trade barrier.
    FISCAL BURDEN OF GOVERNMENT
    Score—Income Taxation: 3.5
    Score—Corporate Taxation: 4.5
    Score—Change in Government Expenditures: 3.5
    Final Score: 4.0
    Yemen’s top income tax rate is 35 percent. The top corporate tax rate is also 35 percent. Government expenditures as a share of GDP increased less in 2001 (0.8 percentage point to 35.7 percent) than they did in 2000 (2.8 percentage points). As a result, Yemen’s fiscal burden of government score is 0.3 point better this year.
    GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY
    Score: 4.0
    The World Bank reports that the government consumed 14.1 percent of GDP in 2001. In the same year, based on data from the Economist Intelligence Unit, Yemen received 71.46 percent of its total revenues from state-owned enterprises and government ownership of property.
    MONETARY POLICY
    Score: 3.0
    From 1993 to 2002, Yemen’s weighted average annual rate of inflation was 11.94 percent.
    CAPITAL FLOWS AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT
    Score: 3.0
    Yemen has streamlined its investment laws and procedures in an attempt to attract more foreign investment and permits foreign investment in most sectors. A new policy grants equal treatment to all investors, both domestic and foreign. Foreign investment in the exploration for and production of oil, gas, and minerals is subject to production-sharing agreements. Foreign investment is not permitted in the arms and explosive materials industries, banking and money exchange, industries that could cause environmental disasters, or wholesale and retail imports. Other barriers to foreign investment are ongoing security concerns and the lack of infrastructure. The International Monetary Fund reports that foreign exchange accounts are permitted. There are no restrictions on payments and transfers.
    BANKING AND FINANCE
    Score: 4.0
    According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, Yemen’s “banking system is comprised of the Central Bank of Yemen, 15 commercial banks and two specialized state-owned development banks. Of the 15 commercial banks, nine are private domestic banks (including four Islamic banks), four are private foreign banks and two are majority state-owned…. The largest commercial bank in the country is the National Bank of Yemen, which is fully state-owned and targeted for privatization.” The EIU also reports that the state-owned Yemen Bank for Reconstruction and Development is being restructured with a view to eventual privatization, although it suffers from a large number of non-performing loans and is undercapitalized, and that the inadequacy of the legal system discourages loans to other than certain preferred clients.
    WAGES AND PRICES
    Score: 3.0
    The government of Yemen affects some prices, particularly in the agriculture and fisheries sectors. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, “The Agriculture and Fisheries Production and Promotion Fund (AFPPF) was launched to protect the livelihoods of the poorest members of the fishing and farming communities after diesel subsidies were reduced. While the AFPPF is still a system based on subsidies, it subsidises agricultural inputs and equipment rather than diesel. Nevertheless, diesel is still subsidized by the government—and this acts as an important crutch for those in the fishing and farming communities, as it powers their irrigation pumps and fishing boats.” Yemen’s labor law specifies that the minimum wage for a private-sector worker may not be less than the minimum wage for a civil servant.
    PROPERTY RIGHTS
    Score: 4.0
    According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, “The judiciary is generally under-trained, inefficient and seen as corrupt.” The U.S. Department of State reports that enforcement of laws and contracts “remains problematic at best and nonexistent at worst.” Also, “in cases involving interest, most judges use Shari’a (Islamic) law as the guideline, under which claims for interest payments due are almost always rejected.”
    REGULATION
    Score: 4.0
    Bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption present serious impediments to business. Yemeni ministries are hugely overstaffed, and reforming the civil service remains a promise unfulfilled. Regulations are applied haphazardly. According to the U.S. Department of State, “While Yemen has fundamentally sound investment laws…transparency of implementation and enforcement is elusive.”
    INFORMAL MARKET
    Score: 5.0
    According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, “Smuggling forms a large and unrecorded part of trade….” Protection of intellectual property in Yemen is weak, and piracy of such products is substantial. In 2000, according to the University of Linz, Austria, the informal economy was approximately 22 percent of GDP.
    http://www.carleton.ca/cifp/docs/corruption.htm
     
  2.   مشاركة رقم : 2    ‏2005-08-30
  3. jawvi

    jawvi قلم ذهبي

    التسجيل :
    ‏2005-06-05
    المشاركات:
    8,781
    الإعجاب :
    0
    وهذا الرا بط
    http://cf.heritage.org/index2004test/country2.cfm?id=Yemen

    Index of Economic Freedom 2004 - Countries


    Yemen, a poor country with few resources, is located on the Red Sea coast of the Arabian Peninsula. In 1990, North and South Yemen united after two decades of political and civil turmoil. A southern secessionist movement that erupted again in 1994 was quickly subdued, but not before it undermined the limited progress that had been made toward economic liberalization. Yemen remains a cauldron of political intrigue with an economy that remains hamstrung by rampant unemployment, frequent water shortages, high population growth rates, and an often-corrupt bureaucracy that has permeated all levels of the government, including the judiciary. President Ali Abdallah Saleh, who led Northern Yemen before the merger, faces strong opposition from southern Yemeni political parties, autonomous tribes, and Islamic radicals who oppose the government’s economic reform program and seek to obstruct private-sector initiatives. Future economic development will be closely tied to the level of the government’s adherence to the International Monetary Fund’s structural adjustment program. Although the administration has adopted marginal measures to reduce state intervention in commercial activities and government spending, more needs to be done, particularly in the areas of economic diversification, civil service reform, and attracting foreign investment. However, because recurring violence and an uncertain security environment have the potential to undermine foreign investor confidence in the economy, the government is not likely to retreat from its economic reform efforts as this would jeopardize its fragile relationship with international donors. Yemen’s fiscal burden of government score is 0.3 point better this year. As a result, its overall score is 0.03 point better this year.
    TRADE POLICY
    Score: 3.0
    Based on data from the Yemeni central bank, Yemen’s average tariff rate in 2000 was 7.4 percent (based on import duties as a percent of total imports). According to the U.S. Department of State, “The government prohibits importation of seven items: pork and pork products, coffee, alcohol, narcotics, some types of fresh fruits and vegetables during their local production season…and rhinoceros horns.” The Economist Intelligence Unit reports that “excessively complex customs procedures” act as a trade barrier.
    FISCAL BURDEN OF GOVERNMENT
    Score—Income Taxation: 3.5
    Score—Corporate Taxation: 4.5
    Score—Change in Government Expenditures: 3.5
    Final Score: 4.0
    Yemen’s top income tax rate is 35 percent. The top corporate tax rate is also 35 percent. Government expenditures as a share of GDP increased less in 2001 (0.8 percentage point to 35.7 percent) than they did in 2000 (2.8 percentage points). As a result, Yemen’s fiscal burden of government score is 0.3 point better this year.
    GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY
    Score: 4.0
    The World Bank reports that the government consumed 14.1 percent of GDP in 2001. In the same year, based on data from the Economist Intelligence Unit, Yemen received 71.46 percent of its total revenues from state-owned enterprises and government ownership of property.
    MONETARY POLICY
    Score: 3.0
    From 1993 to 2002, Yemen’s weighted average annual rate of inflation was 11.94 percent.
    CAPITAL FLOWS AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT
    Score: 3.0
    Yemen has streamlined its investment laws and procedures in an attempt to attract more foreign investment and permits foreign investment in most sectors. A new policy grants equal treatment to all investors, both domestic and foreign. Foreign investment in the exploration for and production of oil, gas, and minerals is subject to production-sharing agreements. Foreign investment is not permitted in the arms and explosive materials industries, banking and money exchange, industries that could cause environmental disasters, or wholesale and retail imports. Other barriers to foreign investment are ongoing security concerns and the lack of infrastructure. The International Monetary Fund reports that foreign exchange accounts are permitted. There are no restrictions on payments and transfers.
    BANKING AND FINANCE
    Score: 4.0
    According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, Yemen’s “banking system is comprised of the Central Bank of Yemen, 15 commercial banks and two specialized state-owned development banks. Of the 15 commercial banks, nine are private domestic banks (including four Islamic banks), four are private foreign banks and two are majority state-owned…. The largest commercial bank in the country is the National Bank of Yemen, which is fully state-owned and targeted for privatization.” The EIU also reports that the state-owned Yemen Bank for Reconstruction and Development is being restructured with a view to eventual privatization, although it suffers from a large number of non-performing loans and is undercapitalized, and that the inadequacy of the legal system discourages loans to other than certain preferred clients.
    WAGES AND PRICES
    Score: 3.0
    The government of Yemen affects some prices, particularly in the agriculture and fisheries sectors. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, “The Agriculture and Fisheries Production and Promotion Fund (AFPPF) was launched to protect the livelihoods of the poorest members of the fishing and farming communities after diesel subsidies were reduced. While the AFPPF is still a system based on subsidies, it subsidises agricultural inputs and equipment rather than diesel. Nevertheless, diesel is still subsidized by the government—and this acts as an important crutch for those in the fishing and farming communities, as it powers their irrigation pumps and fishing boats.” Yemen’s labor law specifies that the minimum wage for a private-sector worker may not be less than the minimum wage for a civil servant.
    PROPERTY RIGHTS
    Score: 4.0
    According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, “The judiciary is generally under-trained, inefficient and seen as corrupt.” The U.S. Department of State reports that enforcement of laws and contracts “remains problematic at best and nonexistent at worst.” Also, “in cases involving interest, most judges use Shari’a (Islamic) law as the guideline, under which claims for interest payments due are almost always rejected.”
    REGULATION
    Score: 4.0
    Bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption present serious impediments to business. Yemeni ministries are hugely overstaffed, and reforming the civil service remains a promise unfulfilled. Regulations are applied haphazardly. According to the U.S. Department of State, “While Yemen has fundamentally sound investment laws…transparency of implementation and enforcement is elusive.”
    INFORMAL MARKET
    Score: 5.0
    According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, “Smuggling forms a large and unrecorded part of trade….” Protection of intellectual property in Yemen is weak, and piracy of such products is substantial. In 2000, according to the University of Linz, Austria, the informal economy was approximately 22 percent of GDP.
    http://www.carleton.ca/cifp/docs/corruption.htm
     
  4.   مشاركة رقم : 3    ‏2005-09-03
  5. الجول

    الجول عضو

    التسجيل :
    ‏2004-12-10
    المشاركات:
    57
    الإعجاب :
    0
    This report is very important for me, i will read it later carefully. Thank you and we appreciate yor efforts
     

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