yemen country

الكاتب : yemeneng man   المشاهدات : 2,166   الردود : 9    ‏2005-07-26
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  1. yemeneng man

    yemeneng man عضو

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    Yemen
    Yemen, a small non-OPEC oil producer, is important to world energy markets because of its oil and natural gas resources and strategic location on the Bab el-Mandab strait, one of the world's most active shipping lanes.

    Note: The information contained in this report is the best available as of July 2004 and may change.

    GENERAL BACKGROUND
    Yemen has shown economic improvement following several years of internal unrest, including the 1990 unification of North and South Yemen and the costly 1994 civil war. As a condition for a 1995 loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Yemen's government continues to implement an economic reform program that includes banking reform, privatization of state-run industries, major infrastructure investment, and reduction or elimination of government subsidies, including wheat, flour, diesel/gasoline, and utilities. Oil income makes up an estimated 70% of total Yemeni government revenue. Over the last two years, Yemen's economy has benefited from relatively high oil prices, which have increased the country's hard currency receipts and remittances from Yemeni workers in the wealthier Persian Gulf countries. Yemen's real gross domestic product increased 4.0% in 2003, and is projected to grow 4.2% in 2004.

    Under terms of its agreements with the IMF and World Bank, Yemen is required to initiate privatization of most sectors of its economy. The country's privatization program aims to boost economic growth, while improving standards of living and access to critical resources (such as power and water). The plan aims to encourage private investment in agriculture, fisheries, and oil, and selling off the government's stake in companies throughout the Yemeni economy. Some companies will be offered for tender or auction, while others will be sold by private subscription. The government also stresses that it is seeking both foreign and local investors. State-owned businesses cited as candidates for privatization include farm and agricultural cooperatives, construction companies, power stations, public housing facilities, refineries, the state's petroleum retail network, shipping companies, and the state telecommunications company. Progress toward privatization, however, has been slow. In 2002, the country's privatization initiative faced a setback when price controls were reintroduced for some commodities, mainly foodstuffs.

    Security remains a concern of foreign firms doing business in Yemen, particularly after the French-flagged oil tanker Limburg was attacked off the coast of Yemen on October 6, 2002. Kidnappings of foreigners, including oil workers, have been a problem. There have also been periodic attacks on an oil pipeline in the Marib region of eastern Yemen, which is operated by U.S.-based Hunt Oil. The Canadian oil company Nexen, which operates the Ash Shihr/Al Mukalla oil export terminal, agreed in January 2003 to provide assistance to the Yemeni government in improving security.

    Political stability in Yemen is critically important to regional oil producers. Yemen sits on the entrance to the Bab el Mandeb strait, which links the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean. The strait is one of the most strategic and busiest shipping lanes in the world, with an estimated 3.2-3.3 million barrels per day (bbl/d) oil flow. Disruption to shipping in the Bab el-Mandab could prevent tankers in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Aden from reaching the Suez Canal/Sumed Pipeline complex, instead diverting them at great cost around the southern tip of Africa (the Cape of Good Hope).

    OIL
    Yemen is a small, non-OPEC oil producer. According to Oil and Gas Journal, the country contains proven crude oil reserves of 4 billion barrels, concentrated in five areas: Marib-Jawf Block 18 (estimated 490 million barrels) in the north; Masila -Block 14 (estimated 500+ million barrels) in the south; East Shabwa - Block 10A (estimated 180 million barrels); Jannah - Block 5 (estimated 345 million barrels) and Iyad - Block 4 (estimated 135 million barrels) in central Yemen. In 2003, Yemen's crude oil output averaged 448,288 bbl/d, showing a slight increase over 2002. Recently, the government of Yemen announced a 1-million-bbl/d production target for 2006. However, according to Yemen's Petroleum Exploration and Production Authority (PEPA), average production has actually fallen in the first half of 2004 to an estimated 400,000-420,000 bbl/d, due to declining production in Masila and Marib, the country's two largest fields.

    Sector Organization
    To date, Yemen's territory has been divided into 78 blocks, around half of which have been licensed for exploration and possible production of oil and/or natural gas. Unlike much of the petroleum and natural gas production in the region, Yemeni production is heavily reliant on private foreign companies, with more than 20 foreign firms operating concessions. Dozens of other foreign and domestic companies are partners in the concessions, including ExxonMobil and TransGlobe Energy. Since the withdrawal of major international oil companies in the mid-to-late 1990's, the government of Yemen has targeted smaller, independent oil companies to take part in Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs).

    Currently there are nine PSAs in existence. In 2003, Canada's Nexen, which owns 52% of the Masila block, produced around 230,000 bbl/d. US-based Hunt Oil produced an estimated 165,000 bbl/d --140,000 bbl/d from Marib al Jawf Block and 25,000 bbl/d from the Jannah Block. Hunt's contract on Marib was recently extended for another five years. France's TotalFinaElf produced around 20,000 bbl/d from its East Shabwa concession. U.K. independent Dove Energy, which operates the East-Sarr Block (53, including the Sharyoof field) and the newly online South Howarime Block (43), produced an estimated 25,000 bbl/d. Norway's DNO produced an estimated 20,000 bbl/d in the Howarin Block (32 - including the Tasour field). An independent consortium of local Yemeni operators produced an estimated 800 bbl/d at Iyad (Ayadh). New production for Nexen-operated blocks 35 (Hood) and 51 (East Al Hajr, BAK-A and -B fields), as well as the independent Vintage Oil - operated S1 block (Damis, including the An Nagyah field ) is expected to come online in early 2005. The new production is expected to help offset declining production in mature fields.

    The Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources (MOMR) places oil tenders up for bid on a semi-annual basis. Contracts typically involve a 2-3 year exploration period and a 20-year production concession. All licenses for exploration and production in Yemen are authorized by the Petroleum Exploration and Production Board of MOMR, subject to ratification by parliamentary secession. All contracts are signed between a company or group of companies, as contractor to the government of Yemen. In late 1999, the government took steps toward improving investment in the country’s oil, gas, energy and petrochemical activities by redefining terms for certain concession agreements. These more favorable terms include lower signature bonuses, an increase in the proportion of oil earnings that companies can claim for development cost recovery to between 50% and 70% (compared with a previous range of 25-45%), and the introduction of a sliding scale of 3-10% for royalties (compared with a previous flat fee of 10%). In mid-2001, Yemeni officials took further steps to improve the energy-related investment climate, announcing a policy of contract extensions, added flexibility on negotiations, and a commitment to amending existing legislation if necessary.

    The national oil company, Yemen General Corporation for Oil & Gas/Mineral Resources, is an affiliation of several state-owned subsidiaries including: the Yemen Oil Company (YOC); the Yemen Refining Company (YRC); the Petroleum Exploration and Production Authority (PEPA) and the General Department of Crude Oil Marketing (GDCOM). All branches report to the MOMR. The national oil company is responsible for managing the industry contracts and relations with operators and partners, as well as the government's share of crude exports.

    Recent Exploration
    Despite declining output in mature fields, Yemen's immediate goal for the petroleum industry involves increasing oil production and oil-related exports (in 2003, more than 370,000 bbl/d was exported, primarily to Asian markets, including China, India, and Thailand). In order to realize this goal, oil exploration activity in Yemen has accelerated since 1997, after a downturn following Yemen's civil war. In August 2003, Canada's Calvalley Petroleum announced the most recent discovery - - four oil bearing wells in the Roidhat field in the Malik Block (9). Calvalley has yet to determine if the oil find is of commercial quality. Nexen continues to explore Block 51, adjacent to their Masila field's and Total's East Shabwa. In June 2004, the Yemeni government offered newly demarcated Blocks 69-74 up for bid (Not on the map: Blocks 69-70 are in the Sabatain Basin, Blocks 71-74 are located in the Masila/ Shabwa Basins). In the same month, a consortium including Norway's DNO and Canada's TransGlobal energy was awarded exploration rights to Block 72. The oil concession encompasses 703 square miles and is located next to Nexen's holdings. China's Sinopec was awarded rights to explore blocks 69 and 71, while Dove Energy acquired Block 73. Blocks 70 and 74 are yet to receive bids. In 2003, 115 exploratory wells were drilled in Yemen, while 140 exploratory wells are forecast for 2004.

    In June 2000, Yemen and Saudi Arabia signed the Treaty of Jeddah, resolving a longstanding border dispute. The agreement opened up opportunities for increased Saudi trade and investment in Yemen, and made possible the award of oil and gas exploration rights for areas in Yemen, adjacent to the border. In 2000, four new blocks were demarcated in this area, and several companies have signed memoranda of understanding (MOU) for exploration rights. In January 2001, Nexen was granted the right to operate Block 59, located adjacent to the Saudi border. Nexen holds a 60% interest, with the other 40% held by Occidental Petroleum (of which Nexen is no longer a subsidiary). In December 2001, Austria's OMV, along with Cepsa of Spain and PanCanadian, concluded an exploration and production contract with the Yemeni government for Block 60.

    Pipelines
    Yemen has an integrated network of pipelines for transport of the crude oil, natural gas, water and salt produced three central areas. This 663-mile network connects with four longer pipelines that transport oil to several major export terminals. The 263-mile Marib-Ras Isa pipeline is the longest of the domestic pipelines, transporting, oil from the Marib basin to the Ra's Isa off shore export terminal on the Red Sea. The pipeline has a capacity of 225,000 bbl/d. The Masila-Shihr pipeline, capable of transporting 300,000 bbl/d, has the largest capacity of pipelines in Yemen. It runs approximately 93 miles from Masila to the export terminal at Ash Shihr. There is also new pipeline construction underway. An 18-mile pipeline, connecting production from the An Nagyah field in the S-1 block, to the Jannah Hunt pipeline, is expected to be completed in early 2005. The pipeline eventually will have a capacity of 80,000 bbl/d, but initally will only transport an estimated 1,000 bbl/d.

    In July 2002, the government of Yemen approved of an agreement in principle with the Saudi Arabia for studies to be made on the first international pipeline (oil, liquefied natural gas, or liquefied petroleum gas) from Saudi southern oil fields to the Yemeni port at Hadramawt. Further negotiations on this project are currently being conducted between the two governments. The pipeline will be used for exports from exploration and production (E&P) ventures in the Saudi portion of Rub' Al Khali involving a Shell-Total partnership, LUKoil of Russia, Sinochem of China, an Agip-Repsol partnership.

    Refining
    Yemen currently has a crude refining capacity of 130,000 bbl/d from two aging refineries. The refinery in Aden, operated by Aden Refinery Company (ARC), has a capacity of 120,000 bbl/d, while capacity at the Marib refinery, operated by Yemen Hunt Oil Company, is 10,000 bbl/d. The Aden refinery, which had a design capacity of 170,000 bbl/d, sustained significant damage during the country's 1994 civil war, but was later partially rebuilt. The Yemeni government has backed away from a 2001 plan to privatize the Aden refinery, but may offer a partial stake to private investors in the future.

    Yemen signed an agreement in December 2002 with the Hadramawt Refinery Company, the country's only private refining company, to construct a 50,000-bbl/d (rising to 100,000-bbl/d) capacity at Al Mukalla. The facility is scheduled to be completed by 2005. Another refinery is planned for Ra's Isa. The Yemeni company al -Hashidi plans to construct the 120,000-bbl/d Ra's Isa refinery, as well as a chain of retail petrol stations, by 2007. Refinery output would be targeted for domestic use rather than export, despite the fact that according to the MOMR, domestic growth in demand for oil products, especially subsidized diesel fuel, has been sluggish over the past several years. The slow demand growth is mainly attributed to high import tariffs on fuels and to the smuggling of cheap (subsidized) Yemeni oil products across borders, where fuel prices are higher (leading to domestic shortages).

    NATURAL GAS
    With reserves of 16.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), Yemen has the potential to become a commercial producer and exporter of natural gas. The bulk of Yemen's gas reserves are concentrated in the Marib-Jawf fields (Block 18). In 2003, there was no production of natural gas in Yemen, despite longstanding plans to develop an export-based natural gas industry. Currently, the gas extracted as by-product of oil production is reinjected.

    From the mid-1990s until 2002, the primary interest in natural gas development in Yemen was focused on the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG). In 1997, TotalFinaElf, the Yemeni government, and several other major multinational companies, established the Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas Company (YLNG). In May 2001, still unable to find a buyer for the natural gas, the Yemeni government announced that it was considering canceling the project unless evidence of progress was produced within one month (the June 2001 date was already the fourth extension to YLNG’s deadline obtain a supply contract). Although no buyers were found at the time, the Yemeni government reconsidered and extended Yemen LNG's approval for an additional four years (until June 16, 2006). The proposed project then suffered another major blow in June 2002, when ExxonMobil (14.5% stake) and Hunt Oil (15.1% stake ) announced that they were leaving the consortium. Hunt later retracted its withdrawal. Finally, in May 2004, China announced it was looking into importing natural gas from Yemen upon signing an MOU that allowed China's National Petroleum Corporation to import more crude oil from Yemen. In June 2004, the consortium bid on a contract to supply LNG to India's National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The first shipments of LNG could be made available within 43 months of securing a supply contract, after necessary industry infrastructure is completed. Such infrastructure includes three pipelines from the fields at Marib and a two-train liquification plant at the Arabian Sea port of Balhaf, south of Al Mukalla (for export of an estimated 6.2 million tonnes of LNG).

    Growing regional competition, especially from Oman and Iran, has been the most significant obstacle to developing LNG for export. In Yemen, costly transportation of the gas from the country's rugged interior, combined with additional security measures, increases production costs. In 2002, in order to encourage investment in commercial natural gas development, the government began offering 25-year purchase price agreements that lowered the price of natural gas to $0.50 per million Btu. Facing slow progress in export-oriented production, the Yemeni government is now considering developing natural gas for domestic electricity generation and petrochemical production. In May 2004, more than 25 companies bid on a domestic gas utilization and pipeline feasibility study for a proposed 373-mile pipeline that would transport gas from Marib to a planned 300-MW power station at Mabar. The study is being funded by the World Bank in cooperation with the Yemen's National Coordination Council.

    ELECTRICITY
    In 2002, Yemen's oil-fired power plants generated 3.1 billion kilowatthours of electricity. According to Yemen's Public Corporation for Electricity (PCE), the country's generating capacity (810 MW) and electricity distribution network is inadequate. Currently, it is estimated that less than one-third of households in Yemen have access to electricity from the national power grid. Even for those connected to the grid, electricity supply is intermittent, with rolling blackout schedules maintained in most cities. According to the PCE, Yemen's generation capacity must increase by 1000 MW by 2010, in order to meet growing demand (up 4.8% over 2001) and to avert an energy crisis in the medium term.

    Over the past decade, the government has taken steps toward alleviating Yemen's electricity shortage, including reform, expansion and integration of the country's power sector through small-scale privatization and independent (private) power projects (IPPs). Plans to restructure the electricity sector were formally laid out in the 1997 Power Sector Strategy, which included a restructuring of the PCE, planned for 2001. The reform package originally including the privatization of generators having a capacity of less than 5 MW, and the sale of generators of 5 MW-20 MW through public offerings. However, plans to privatize the power stations have been delayed indefinitely. Currently, Yemen's two largest power plants are the 165-MW power station at Ra's Kanatib, near Al Hudaydah, and the 160-MW station in Al Mukha, south of Al Hudaydah.

    Long term development of Yemen's power sector includes a reduction in oil dependence, thus maximizing oil for export. Yemen's plans include the construction of several gas-fired power stations, expansion of the national power grid, and the introduction of renewables, such as solar energy, to rural areas. In the immediate term, the government is promoting large-scale IPPs in order to increase generation capacity by an additional 1,400 MW over the next two years. Although critical, achieving this goal may prove difficult. Recently, several IPPs have faced delays or collapsed entirely. These setbacks have been attributed to lack of development of natural gas infrastructure as well as disagreement over the fixed price to be paid to the IPPs for new electricity supply.

    In late 1999, the Yemeni government signed a MOU with the US corporation Delma Power for the first IPP - a two-plant, 700-MW capacity, gas-fired power complex, transmission line, and substation near the Marib oil and gas field, east of Sanaa. However, lack of development of a natural gas production and distribution network from the nearby Safar fields has threatened to delay progress indefinitely. As a result of delays, the Delma Power MOU expired and the project recently went out for re-bid. In May 2004, Lahmeyer International of Germany was contracted to provide consultancy services for the first phase of construction- a $230 million, 300-MW plant - scheduled to be operational in 2007. Related to this project is the installation of a 124-mile, 400-kV transmission line and several gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) substations, to link the plant to the national power grid in Sanaa. This transmission and distribution project is being undertaken under a separate contract and is to be awarded by the Ministry of Electricity and Water in late July 2004. Germany’s Fichtner, Jordan’s National Electric Power Company (Nepco) and Saudi Consulting Services (SaudConsult) are all under consideration. The second phase of the Marib program will involve a 400-MW IPP. In July 2004, dozens of companies, including the German Fichtner and Lahmeyer International, Kuljian Engineering and British UB Power, bid on engineering, procurement and construction (EPC), with contracts are yet to be awarded.

    While large-scale development has mostly stalled, efforts by the Yemeni government to encourage interest in IPP ventures, including the long terms gas-purchase agreements, have resulted in several smaller scale projects. In 1998, the Mukalla power project was completed. The projector included the construction of a 40-MW diesel-fired plant, six substations, and the laying of 62 miles of transmission lines. The Finnish firm Wartsila recently completed the Aden power project, which involved building a 30-MW plant and repairing the Al Hiswa power plant to serve the city's port. The Al Hiswa plant is currently under consideration for expansion by 60 MW of generation capacity as part of the redevelopment of Aden, which was heavily damaged in the 1994 civil war.

    While encouraging private investment through competitive loans and power purchasing agreements, to date much of Yemen's electricity infrastructure improvements have been funded by multilateral development organizations. The national grid linkage, completed in July 1997, was first funded by the Kuwait-based Arab Fund for Economic & Social Development (AFESD), which provided the initial $54 million of the $64 million required for the project. In 1998, the World Bank and the International Development Foundation (IDF) granted Yemen a $33 million loan for the "Sanaa Emergency Power Project," an upgrade of the Dhaban power plant to 50-MW total capacity, which was completed in June 2004. The Saudi Fund for Development (SFD) and the AFESD are also major backers of the first phase of the Marib power plant project.

    Sector Organization
    Yemen's state-owned Public Electricity Corporation (PEC), under the Ministry of Electricity and Water, operates an estimated 80% of the country's generating capacity as part of the national grid. The remainder of Yemen's electricity is generated by small off-grid suppliers and privately-owned generators in rural areas. The PEC distributes electricity in the national grid through two 132Kv transmission systems, one serving the northern region of Sanaa -Hudaydah -Aden, the other serving Mukalla and Hadramawt region. Coverage is reportedly sporadic and inefficient. In 2003, the Government of Yemen estimated that 25% of electricity capacity is lost in generation. According to the World Bank, Yemen's electricity shortage is one of the major restraints on economic growth - limiting industrial production and depressing standards of living.

    Traditionally, consumer electricity in Yemen has been highly subsidized. In accordance with IMF reforms, the government of Yemen has recently increased electricity tariffs. The 2002 reduction in subsidization allowed the PEC to break even for the first time ever.


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    Sources for this report include: Agence France Presse; APS Review of Oil and Gas Market Trends; CIA World Factbook; Dow Jones News Wire service; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Oil & Gas Journal; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; Reuters; U.S. Energy Information Administration; World Gas Intelligence.
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    COUNTRY OVERVIEW
    Head of Government: Prime Minister Abd al Qadir Ba Jamal (since April 14, 2001)
    Chief of State: President Field Marshall Ali Abdallah Saleh (reelected in September 1999)
    Independence: May 22, 1990 (reunification)
    Population (2004E): 20.0 million
    Location/Size: Southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula (bordered by the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Between Oman and Saudi Arabia) /527,790 sq. kilometers (203,730 sq. miles); approximately the size of Wyoming and Colorado
    Major Cities: Sanaa (capital), Aden, Al Hudaydah, Taizz
    Language: Arabic
    Religion: Muslim, including Shafi (type of Sunni jurisprudence), Zaydi (type of Shia), small Jewish, Christian, and Hindu communities
    Ethnicity: Predominantly Arab, also Afro-Arab, South Asian, European

    ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
    Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Finance: Alawi Salih al-Salami
    Currency: Yemeni Rial (YER)
    Exchange Rate: US$1 = YER183 (average for 2003)
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (2003E): $11 billion
    Real GDP Growth Rate (2003E): 4.0% (2004F): 4.2%
    Consumer Price Inflation (2003E): 10.8% (2004F): 14.5%
    Unemployment Rate (2003E): 35.0%
    Merchandise Exports (2003E): $4.0 billion
    Merchandise Imports (2003E): $3.4 billion
    Total Foreign Debt (2003E): $6.9 billion
    Current Account Balance (2003E): 3.0% of GDP
    Major Trading Partners: China, Kuwait Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United States
    Major Export Products: Crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and salted fish
    Major Import Products: textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, live animals, cement, machinery, chemicals

    ENERGY OVERVIEW
    Minister of Oil and Mineral Resources: Dr. Rasheed Saleh Baraba
    Minister of Electricity: Abdul Rahman Mohamad Tarmoom
    Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/04E): 4 billion barrels
    Oil Production (2003E): 448,288 barrels per day (bbl/d) (all crude)
    Oil Consumption (2003E): 78,000 bbl/d
    Net Oil Exports (2003E): 370,288 bbl/d
    Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/04E): 130,000 bbl/d
    Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/04E): 16.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
    Natural Gas Production/Consumption: None
    Coal Reserves/Production/Consumption: None
    Electric Generating Capacity (1/1/02): 810 megawatts (100% oil-fired)
    Electricity Generation (2002E): 3.1 billion kilowatthours (Bkwh)
    Electricity Consumption (2002E): 2.8 Bkwh

    ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW
    Minister of Water and the Environment: Mohammed Lutf al-Eryani
    Chairman of the National Council for Environment Protection: Dr. Mohamed Said El-Mashjary
    Total Energy Consumption (2002E): 0.15 quadrillion Btu* (0.04% of world total energy consumption)
    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions (2002E): 2.6 million metric tons (0.04% of world carbon dioxide emissions)
    Per Capita Energy Consumption (2002E): 7.8 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 339.1 million Btu)
    Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions (2002E): 0.51 metric tons (vs. U.S. value of 20.0 metric tons)
    Energy Intensity (2002E): 9,569 Btu/$nominal-PPP (vs U.S. value of 10,736 Btu/$nominal-PPP)**
    Carbon Dioxide Intensity (2002E): 0.63 metric tons/thousand $nominal-PPP (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $nominal-PPP)**
    Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2002E): Oil (100.0%)
    Fuel Share of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (2002E): Oil (100.0%)
    Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified February 21st, 1996). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
    Major Environmental Issues: Very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
    Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban and Ozone Layer Protection

    * The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, and wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
    **GDP figure from CIA Factbook estimate, based on purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates

    OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES
    Organizations: Yemen General Corporation for Oil & Gas/Mineral Resources (National Oil Company) - loose affiliation of several subsidiaries, including: Yemen Petroleum Company (YPC) - manages a nominal government interest in production (PSAs), handles marketing; General Corporation for Oil and Mineral Resources (GCOMR) - investment and holding company; Yemen Refining Company (YRC) - manages refining industry; General Department of Crude Oil Marketing (GDCOM) - handles government shares of exports; The Petroleum Exploration and Production Authority (PEPA)- contract negotiations, Joint Ventures: Yemen Exploration and Production Company (YEPC), Yemen Liquid Natural Gas (YLNG); Electricity: Public Corporation for Electricity (PCE) - controls the national electricity grid
    Major Oil Producing Blocks: Masila (including the Camaal and Heijah fields), Marib al Jawf (including Alif, Asaad Al-Kamil, Azal, and Wasi Bana fields) , Jannah, East Sarr, East Shabwa, Howarin (including the Tasour field), and Iyad
    Natural Gas Reserves: Marib al Jawf, Jannah, East Shabwa, Iyad
    Major Foreign Company Involvement: Capital Oil and Gas; Cepsa, Dove Energy, DNO, Nexen, Hunt Oil, Occidental, PanCanadian, Rosneft, TotalFinaElf, TransGlobe Energy
    Major Refineries (Capacity): Aden (120,000 bbl/d), Marib (10,000 bbl/d)
    Main Ports/Export Terminals: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Bir Ali, Ash Shihr/Al Mukalla, Mocha, Nishtun, As Salif-Ra's Isa (offshore)
    Major Pipelines: Marib-Ra's Isa Pipeline, Masila-Shahir, Shabwa-Rudhum Pipeline (pipeline linking the Iyad -Shabwa fields to the Rudhum terminal on the Gulf of Aden at Hisn an Nushaymah), Jannah-Safir (pipeline from Jannah to production facilities in Safir, Marib), East Shabwa-Masila (pipeline from East Shabwa to Masila)
     
  2.   مشاركة رقم : 2    ‏2005-07-27
  3. العربي اليماني

    العربي اليماني عضو نشيط

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    [grade="000000 000000 00BFFF 00BFFF 000000"]Great work dear yemeni man,I hope you continue the good work and never stop
    Yemen is a green land and full or resources but need a lot of brains to build it up
    Wish you a good and happy time here in the english forum[/grade]
     
  4.   مشاركة رقم : 3    ‏2005-08-03
  5. الجدول

    الجدول عضو فعّال

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    thank you for your great effort
     
  6.   مشاركة رقم : 4    ‏2005-08-03
  7. بنت الفلاحي

    بنت الفلاحي عضو

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    Thanks for the useful information:)
     
  8.   مشاركة رقم : 5    ‏2005-08-26
  9. ناديه محمد

    ناديه محمد عضو

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    ‏2005-08-24
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    Well, so useful information, but did this article written by you?
     
  10.   مشاركة رقم : 6    ‏2005-09-17
  11. بنت عدن

    بنت عدن قلم ماسي

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    [grade="00008B FF6347 008000 4B0082"]
    yes it's good information.....but i think it will be better if
    .you could summaries for the next time... will be very usefull for us

    it is just an idea......

    best regards
    [/grade]
     
  12.   مشاركة رقم : 7    ‏2005-09-22
  13. T_K

    T_K قلم فضي

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    I difinately didn't read the whole thing

    but it looks like there's a lot of useful
    information there

    Like sister Bint3dan said, a summary
    would have been a better idea, although, in
    this case it would have taken you a reallllly
    long time to summarize this overwhelmengly looooong
    article

    good effort

    regards

    TK
     
  14.   مشاركة رقم : 8    ‏2005-10-09
  15. الجول

    الجول عضو

    التسجيل :
    ‏2004-12-10
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    I will tray to read it later because i do not have enough time now. It seems good Topic
     
  16.   مشاركة رقم : 9    ‏2005-10-16
  17. اليمني الجريح

    اليمني الجريح قلم ماسي

    التسجيل :
    ‏2005-02-26
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    Thanks bro for the searched info u did about yemen
    it is so helpful and useful for non-yemenese who want infos about yemen
    :)
    and for us who needs some of it will be good idea as بنت عدن said a good summery of it

    :)

    Thank you once again
     
  18.   مشاركة رقم : 10    ‏2005-10-25
  19. Immigrant

    Immigrant عضو فعّال

    التسجيل :
    ‏2005-09-26
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    dude
    i love copy and paste
    come on now
    be creative
    come up with something from your own

    just joking

    Immigrant
    Only God Can Judge me
     

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